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 Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)

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rsgamboa
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PostSubject: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Jan 19, 2009 7:49 am

In the spectrum of organizational change, which is the most radical type of change: automation, rationalization of procedures, business reengineering, or paradigm shifts?
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Hannah Rhea Hernandez

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Jan 27, 2009 4:16 pm

Being in a business, one of the most thought of question is "What can be done to make the business survive and grow?". In this ever changing world, business processes must also adapt to the changes in the environment to ensure success thus making the business develop.

But how can one adapt? There are a few, if not thousands of techniques, solutions and methods that claim to help business improve productivity, quality and customer satisfaction. And in response to this confusion, one of the choices to consider is to have the company undergo an organizational change.

Typically, the phrase “organizational change” is about any substantive modification to some part of the organization, such as reorganization or adding a major new product or service. In Systems Development, there are four kinds of structural change, specifically: Automation, Rationalization of procedures, Business process reengineering, and Paradigm Shift.

Lets us now be familiar with this four structural changes. Automation refers mechanizing procedures or industrial automation by using of machines or computers to control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention to speed up the performance of existing tasks. Rationalization of procedures means the streamlining of standard operating procedures.

Business process re-engineering
is the analysis and redesign of business processes to reorganize work flows and reduce waste and repetitive tasks. It is as described by Hammer and Champy is 'the fundamental reconsideration and the radical redesign of organizational processes, in order to achieve drastic improvement of current performance in cost, services and speed'. One should try to see the firm in a new and fresh perspective that leads to elevating and improving the business processes. While Paradigm shift is the radical reconceptualization of the nature of the business and the nature of the organization.



Which is more radical?? Radical being defined as departing markedly from the usual or customary or extreme I think that amongst the four, Paradigm shift is the most radical. As seen from the image above, a conclusion can be drawn that truthfully enough the return/rewards is highest in the paradigm shift but it has also the biggest risks. When you think about it, automation and rationalization of procedures seems all to normal these days. And that leads us to choose between BPR and paradigm shifts which are both radical in their own ways but paradigm shift is more "revolutionary" than the other. In paradigm shift one really tends to move away from old habits, processes and traditions and seeks to create new and improved processes, tasks and functions.
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Melgar John Gascal

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Jan 28, 2009 8:43 am

rsgamboa wrote:
In the spectrum of organizational change, which is the most radical type of change: automation, rationalization of procedures, business reengineering, or paradigm shifts?

Radical means departing markedly from the usual or customary and it also means extreme while paradigm shift means a new perspective on things. It is sometimes known as extraordinary science or revolutionary science (Thomas Khun). A paradigm shift is a radical change of pace in our paradigms, a fundamental change in our unconscious view of reality. It is a transformation of the way humans perceive events, people, environment, and life altogether. It can be a national or international shift, and could have dramatic effects, whether positive or negative, on the way we live our lives today and in the future.

I think the most radical type of change in the spectrum of organizational change is the paradigm shift. Paradigm shift is a total change on organization. Unlike on the business reengineering that changes a portion of the organization to improve the cost, quality and service. A paradigm shift involves rethinking the nature of the business, the organization. It is a complete reconception of how the system should function. Using this method will take high risks and give a high or great reward for the organization if it is a success. When if it is a failure it would results the organization will go down or bankruptcy or worst the organization will be closed.

References:
http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/radical
Microsoft PowerPoint - 02-1-short-IT-strategies.ppt
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm_shift
http://ezinearticles.com/?What-is-a-Paradigm-Shift?&id=68933
http://www.halexandria.org/dward171.htm
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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Wed Jan 28, 2009 11:01 am

Based on the data I have gathered, among the four types of organizational change, the most radical type is paradigm shifts. The most common is automation and also the easiest. Automation and rationalization of procedures are slow moving and slow changing strategies. These two types of change carry low rewards but offer little risk. In contrast, business reengineering and paradigm shifts are faster; carry high rewards but offer high chances of failure.

Change is constant. Many have changed for the better but others are for worse. Others choose to be adaptive than to be predictive because they have this thought that not all things can be predicted. And it is all because life is a constant change. But for me, I am not really into adaptive side; I choose to be predictive rather. Change makes me nervous at times and I am not that person who can easily adapt but not quite long which is I know wrong but still I am working on it.

To understand each type and to know the reason why paradigm shifts the most radical type let us first define each of them. Automation deals with the use of Information Technology (IT) in order to speed up the process of a certain task. Rationalization of procedures is the reformation of operating procedures, removal of bottlenecks to make the operating procedures of the organization more efficient. Business reengineering is the redesigning of the business processes to improve measure of performance while paradigm shifts is the re-conceptualization or change of the nature of the business and the organization itself.

Talking about paradigm shifts as the most radical type of change, organizations could have major disruption when it is done. Although we could say that it is very dangerous because it talks about extreme change and taking high risk but still many of the organizations use it and also business reengineering. Why extreme change? As defined above, it is because it deals with changing the very nature of the business, the structure of the organization and it also deals with new products or services. Same as other individuals, organizations use paradigm shifts as their strategy to change in order to stay competitive. I have read from an article that because of the global economic pressure, organizations realized that they have to take on the challenges to meet the demands of their shareholders.

All types of change could give an organization a disruption but in two most common types – the automation and rationalization of procedures, usually, it can be managed. For the rest, especially the highly disruptive, most dangerous and most radical type of change which is paradigm shifting, it needs a lot of care and should be done well. And if done well, it can give tremendous rewards.

References:
http://www.santarosa.edu/~ssarkar/cs66fl06/ch14notes.htm
http://eclass.yonsei.ac.kr/ksim/under/note/Ch13.pdf
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maryrossinidiamante

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Thu Jan 29, 2009 10:22 pm

Revolutionary measures are of constant in an organization. In implementing developments and improvements, changes should be put through. Perhaps the most asked but least answered question in business today is “What can we do to make our business survive and grow?” The world is rapidly changing into something too hard to easily predict, with a hundred opportunities and pitfalls passing by every moment.

We are moving at an accelerated rate of speed, our knowledge and awareness expands and our state of thinking and ideas is transforming and transcending so as the differences to be made for the expansion and progression of the organization’s state.

A Paradigm Shift is when a significant change happens usually from one fundamental view to a different view. In most cases, some type of major discontinuity occurs as well. It could have dramatic effects whether positive or negative. Therefore, I think among the organizational changes, the paradigm shift would have greater impact and would be more vital among others. According to Kuhn, paradigm shift is revolutionary science. “Revolutionary science is usually unsuccessful, and only rarely leads to new paradigms. When they are successful they lead to large scale changes in the scientific worldview.” If it would fall short, then it could entirely cause failure to the organization. It could greatly affect an organization since wide changes is being employed in this change. A thorough thought over about implicating this would be considered and required.

http://www.taketheleap.com/define.html
http://www.organizedchange.com/decide.htm
http://ezinearticles.com/?What-is-a-Paradigm-Shift?&id=68933
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sat Jan 31, 2009 12:39 am

As mentioned above by Hannah, significant organizational change really occurs in a business when it changes its overall strategy for success or wants to change the very nature by which it operates. It also occurs when an organization evolves through various life cycles, just like people must successfully evolve through life cycles. For organizations to develop, they often must undergo significant change at various points in their development. Although significant organizational change is one of the most difficult strategies to implement, engaging such change is also very rewarding.

Among the four types of change; Automation, Rationalization of procedures, Business process reengineering, and Paradigm Shift, I think it is very evident that paradigm shift is the most important one. It is the best choice among the four. To support this, let us get to know more about paradigm shift. As what I have read, we may think as a change from one way of thinking to another. It's a revolution, a transformation, a sort of metamorphosis. In laymen terms, Paradigm Shift is a popular, or perhaps, not so popular shift or transformation of the way we Humans perceive events, people, environment, and life altogether. It can be a national or international shift, and could have dramatic effects -- whether positive or negative -- on the way we live our lives today and in the future. I think what makes this different among the four is the fact that it adapts to the changes of the world in reality. The organization will base its ideas and decision on what is important on the current or present time. Unlike the automation that merely uses machines or computers denying the existence of human who is the most critical part of an organization.

Although major risk also awaits in this type of change, its worth the gamble for there also waits major rewards. Anyway, life is a gamble itself. You just have to play the cards well.

sources:

http://managementhelp.org/org_chng/org_chng.htm
http://www.fastcompany.com/guides/change.html
http://www.taketheleap.com/define.html
http://ezinearticles.com/?What-is-a-Paradigm-Shift?&id=68933

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Sat Jan 31, 2009 9:38 am

The spectrum of organizational change is composed of four parts, arranged from lowest to highest in terms of both risks and rewards: automation, rationalization of procedures, business re-engineering, and paradigm shift. Meanwhile, the term radical is synonymous with essential, major, thorough, sweeping, and drastic. So when we say radical organizational change, we are referring to a type of organizational change that will bring about largely significant and drastic changes.

The lowest in both risk and reward is automation, which entails that even though there is lesser risk in this type of change, the rewards that you get are also directly proportional to the risk and therefore are also small. However, if we look at the very top of the spectrum, we can find paradigm shift, which has both high risks and high rewards. From this and from the definition of radical alone, I can deduce that paradigm shift is the most radical organizational change. Why? First of all, paradigm shift involves rethinking the whole nature of the business, a complete re-conception of how the system should function. In other words, it offers companies a whole new perspective about their business processes and allows them to rework everything from top to bottom. It brings about a "radical" change in the organization's way of thinking and replaces the old way of thinking with a newer, more insightful idea.

Now, if we compare paradigm shift to business re-engineering, which is the third highest in risk and reward, business re-engineering [and even the other two] focuses only on a particular area of the business organization. While they are coupled with lower risks, the rewards you get are also lower. I think this is a major difference with paradigm shift where you have to be willing to take higher risks in order to attain higher rewards. This alone brings to mind the word drastic, a synonym of radical. It is in fact risky, however, if you can avoid or be prepared for the risks, then you will surely achieve the highest rewards and overcome the highest risks.

References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm_shift
http://www.taketheleap.com/define.html
http://courses.csusm.edu/htm304yy/Week10.pdf
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CherryannMontejo

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sat Jan 31, 2009 11:07 am

In the spectrum of organizational change, which is the most radical type of change: automation, rationalization of procedures, business reengineering, or paradigm shifts?

When a business is in the midst of increasing their productivity, it faces different kinds of organizational change. There are lots of ways in order for a business to make it more efficient and to improve operational flexibility. In the spectrum of organizational change, the most essential type of change is paradigm shift which is the radical conceptualization of the nature of the business process and the organization.

Even though it takes a larger risk than the other type of change it has become the most widely applied organizational change to many other organizations for it changes the overall business process thus making a better impact if it is a success. Although business reengineering is also one radical type of change because this approach deals also in redesigning the way work is done in order to better support the organization’s mission and to reduce cost which has the objective of radical improvement in performance and not just incremental improvement, the term paradigm shift is still the most radical type for this kind of approach has found uses in other situation, representing the concept of a major change in a certain thought-pattern.

If this kind of organizational change will be properly implemented and is put into better application by the people in the organization it can create a big radical change in personal beliefs, complex systems, replacing the former way of organizing with a radically different way of thinking. Through this change, it makes an influential technique and a start of something new to improve profits and business operations. Because when we have the focus on making efficient business with the most profitable segment we can make it grow unpredictably fast simply by making a general change in the organization and the best and most radical type of change is paradigm shift.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm_shift
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Adlaon,Kristine Mae

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Feb 01, 2009 6:25 pm

In the spectrum of organizational change, which is the most radical type of change: automation, rationalization of procedures, business reengineering, or paradigm shifts?

Automation, business reengineering, paradigm shifts and rationalization of procedures are four types of organizational change. They share the same idea of change within an organization. Now, to answer the question unto which type of change is most radical, meaning has the greatest effect on the change of the organization, I would probably say PARADIGM SHIFT. Let’s try to discuss each of the terms:
Business Process Reengineering

1. According to Wikipedia; it is an approach aiming at improvements by means of elevating efficiency and effectiveness of the business process that exist within and across organizations.
2. It is one approach for redesigning the way work is done to better support the organization’s mission and reduce cost.
3. It starts with a high level assessment of the organization’s mission, strategic goals and customer needs.

• Automation
Based on Wikipedia definition; it is the of control systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well.

• Paradigm Shift
1. It is also referred to as scientific revolution.
2. It is a change from one way of thinking to another. It’s a revolution, a transformation, a sort of metamorphosis. It just does not happen, but rather it is driven by agents of change.
3. Thomas Kuhn said “the successive transition from one paradigm to another via revolution is the usual development pattern of mature science”.

Base on the above definitions, I could say that the most radical type of change is the paradigm shift because this kind of change greatly changes a certain status to another status. Let say in an organization, a paradigm shift is a total renovation or change of the whole organization.

But, if to choose, I think if an organization wants a change, business reengineering is the most advisable one. Simply because, in business reengineering, it does not change the whole system of the organization but rather review what are the needs to improve and to make it more efficient, of the existing system.

References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_reengineering
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm_shift
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automation
Encarta encyclopedia/dictionary
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Feb 02, 2009 5:13 pm

Before discussing the topic, let me first define the following. Automation, based on wikipedia, is the use of control systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. According to the meaning of radiation, it is a concept used by Weber to refer to the process by which modes of precise calculation and organization, involving abstract rules and procedures, increasingly come to dominate the social world. Business Reengineering is an approach aiming at improvements by means of elevating efficiency and effectiveness of the business process that exist within and across organizations. Business Reegineering is the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises. Lastly, paradigm shift. A Paradigm Shift is when a significant change happens - usually from one fundamental view to a different view. In most cases, some type of major discontinuity occurs as well. A Paradigm Shift as a change from one way of thinking to another. It's a revolution, a transformation, a sort of metamorphosis. It just does not happen, but rather it is driven by agents of change.

As defined above and been shown by Hannah's answer, the most radical type of change in an organization is the PARADIGM SHIFT. Based on the graph shown by Hannah, the most risky change is the paradigm shift since it is a change, a revolution, an unexpected happen occurs. It turns the organization into something new. A whole renovation, that mean. Relatively, it can be said that it is a radical change since that the organization dont have the power to fight against this change.





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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Feb 03, 2009 1:31 pm

I got confused of what radocal meams so I searched the net for some. Laughing...Based on the sources below something radical is favoring drastic political, economic, or social reforms, thoroughgoing or extreme, esp. as regards change from accepted or traditional forms.

And to further have a reasonable opinion I searched how each organizational changes go. And as I end up with the last page of my readings I realized that the success of an organizational change is not dependent to the process that the company chooses but on the reason behind why change in the organization is needed. And through the knowledge about what the organization needs, then it will be the basis on the process that the company would choose.

I bumped into good sources on how to decide and how organizational changes must go. These are the important points:

Typically, the concept of organizational change is in regard to organization-wide change, as opposed to smaller changes such as adding a new person, modifying a program, etc. Examples of organization-wide change might include a change in mission,restructuring operations (e.g., restructuring to self-managed teams, layoffs, etc.), new technologies, mergers, major collaborations, "rightsizing", new programs such as Total Quality Management, re-engineering, etc. Some experts refer to organizational transformation. Often this term designates a fundamental and radical reorientation in the way the organization operates.

Change should not be done for the sake of change -- it's a strategy to accomplish some overall goal. Usually organizational change is provoked by some major outside driving force, e.g., substantial cuts in funding, address major new markets/clients, need for dramatic increases in productivity/services, etc. Typically, organizations must undertake organization-wide change to evolve to a different level in their life cycle, e.g., going from a highly reactive, entreprenueral organization to more stable and planned development. Transition to a new chief executive can provoke organization-wide change when his or her new and unique personality pervades the entire organization.

Typically there are strong resistances to change. People are afraid of the unknown. Many people think things are already just fine and don't understand the need for change. Many are inherently cynical about change, particularly from reading about the notion of "change" as if it's a mantra. Many doubt there are effective means to accomplish major organizational change. Often there are conflicting goals in the organization, e.g., to increase resources to accomplish the change yet concurrently cut costs to remain viable. Organization-wide change often goes against the very values held dear by members in the organization, that is, the change may go against how members believe things should be done. That's why much of organizational-change literature discusses needed changes in the culture of the organization, including changes in members' values and beliefs and in the way they enact these values and beliefs.

-I also got some good readings and got these guidelines....READING is FUN..yeah..

1. Consider using a consultant. Ensure the consultant is highly experienced in organization-wide change. Ask to see references and check the references.

2. Widely communicate the potential need for change. Communicate what you're doing about it. Communicate what was done and how it worked out.
3. Get as much feedback as practical from employees, including what they think are the problems and what should be done to resolve them. If possible, work with a team of employees to manage the change.
4. Don't get wrapped up in doing change for the sake of change. Know why you're making the change. What goal(s) do you hope to accomplish?
6. Plan the change. How do you plan to reach the goals, what will you need to reach the goals, how long might it take and how will you know when you've reached your goals or not? Focus on the coordination of the departments/programs in your organization, not on each part by itself. Have someone in charge of the plan.
7. End up having every employee ultimately reporting to one person, if possible, and they should know who that person is. Job descriptions are often complained about, but they are useful in specifying who reports to whom.
8. Delegate decisions to employees as much as possible. This includes granting them the authority and responsibility to get the job done. As much as possible, let them decide how to do the project.
9. The process won't be an "aha!" It will take longer than you think.
10. Keep perspective. Keep focused on meeting the needs of your customer or clients.
11. Take care of yourself first. Organization-wide change can be highly stressful.
12. Don't seek to control change, but rather to expect it, understand it and manage it.
13. Include closure in the plan. Acknowledge and celebrate your accomplishments.
14. Read some resources about organizational change, including new forms and structures.



Sources: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/radical
http://www.managementhelp.org/mgmnt/

-Confused on what book to read?....Just surf the net..it have all the topics you could think of..its cheaper i guess..and lots of pages for u to read... Laughing Laughing Laughing
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Riza Eve Gador

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Feb 04, 2009 10:57 am

In the spectrum of organizational change, which is the most radical type of change: automation, rationalization of procedures, business reengineering, or paradigm shifts?

An organization is a community that has mission vision and goals. The organization controls and predicts the performance in the future. As we all know world is round changes and problems occurs and we cannot control it, but we can prevent or go with the flow with this changes and problems. But in an organization in every period of time changes primary occurs since the organizations need too change in order to meet the customers’ satisfaction.

Organizational change refers to the organization change like changing the old system to a new and automated system, changing its man power, and also the total transformation of the organization.

These are the most radical changes: according to Hassan Al-Bekhit from Business-Process-Reengineering.ppt are automation, rationalization of procedures, business reengineering and paradigm shifts. Automation refers to computerizing processes in order to make faster the existing tasks. Automation is also a kind of change to improve the quality and efficiency of the work. Rationalization of procedure refers to streamlining of standard operating procedures, eliminating obvious bottlenecks, so that automation makes operating procedures more efficient. Business reengineering refers to fundamental redesign of business processes. And it aims to eliminate repetitive, paper-intensive, technical tasks, reducing costs significantly, improving product or service quality. Paradigm shift refers to a more radical form of change where the nature of business and the nature of the organization are questioned. And it is also improves strategic standing of the organization. But for me, there is no most radical type of change but it is how the company faces these changes. If the company can’t face those changes, then it is their most radical type of change.




Reference:

Organizational Change and Development, Free Management Library. Retrieved from http://managementhelp.org/org_chng/org_chng.htm

Providing Solutions in Organization, Business and Professional Development, Authenticity Consulting LLC. Retrieved from http://www.authenticityconsulting.com/

Al-Bekhit, H. , Business Process Reengineering from Business-Process-Reengineering.ppt
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George Dan Gil Duran

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Wed Feb 04, 2009 1:15 pm

In the spectrum of organizational change, which is the most radical type of change: automation, rationalization of procedures, business reengineering, or paradigm shifts?
Base on the dictionary (Encarta Dictionaries) I have known that the meaning of paradigm shift is radical change; a radical change in somebody’s basic assumptions about or approach to something. Thus I can say that the most radical type of change in the spectrum of organizational change is the paradigm shits because when you say radical change it changes the whole structure according to its norm. Unlike the other selections they only change their field not as a whole. Paradigm shifts contains some and the most important part of the organizations and thus, when they change it everything in the organization will also be affected. Also this could be the most risky part of an organizational change because when a problem occurs it will surely make the organization in lots and lots of trouble. So if an organization will think about paradigm shifts they should consider the danger and the risk they will be encountering and provide a solutions.
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ymrebmomville

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PostSubject: radical changes   Fri Feb 06, 2009 1:53 pm

Before stating my side, I would like to define first the different kinds of changes involved in this article.

Automation (roboticization) or industrial automation or numerical control is the use of control systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention.[1] In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Processes and systems can also be automated.

Paradigm shifts
A paradigm is a system of thought based on a central fundamental premise.

Paradigms are central to human culture. They are learned, taught, passed on and often serve to define membership in a culture or subculture. "The passing of paradigms within a society is, in effect the process of acculturation and socialization. Paradigms influence how we govern ourselves, how our public institutions are configured and operate, our economic systems and institutions, the structures of our organizations, and how we manage people and other resources. Imagine the whole system of thought being change. In business, this means a lot of changes on their current paradigm.

Rationalization of procedures is the process of constructing a logical justification for a belief, decision, action or lack thereof that was originally arrived at through a different mental process. It is a defense mechanism in which unacceptable behaviors or feelings are explained in a rational or logical manner; this avoids the true explanation of the behavior or feeling in question.

Business process reengineering (BPR) is, in computer science and management, an approach aiming at improvements by means of elevating efficiency and effectiveness of the business process that exist within and across organizations. The key to BPR is for organizations to look at their business processes from a "clean slate" perspective and determine how they can best construct these processes to improve how they conduct business.


I believe the tasks requiring subjective assessment or synthesis of complex sensory data, such as scents and sounds, as well as high-level tasks such as strategic planning, currently require human expertise. In many cases, the use of humans is more cost-effective than mechanical approaches even where automation of industrial tasks is possible.

The widespread impact of industrial automation raises social issues, among them its impact on employment.

Critics of automation contend that increased industrial automation causes increased unemployment; this was a pressing concern during the 1980s. One argument claims that this has happened invisibly in recent years. After learning the value of HUMAN in a business, I believed AUTOMATION is the most radical among the changes.

Before a premise was made and paradigms were formulated, before processes in a business were made, before procedures were being implemented, we, humans already exist. Since automation greatly affects the business’ profitability, many heads were after the productivity brought by machines neglecting the core component of a business, which is people.
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Ronic Winmar Concepcion

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PostSubject: ass # 5   Fri Feb 06, 2009 2:16 pm

I think BPR is the most radical change. Processes are needed to create products in a way that minimizes cost and increases return on investment. Automation is no use if the process is not good. Newly formed system of thought (paradigm shifts) and rationalized procedures are useless if the process is not better.

A business process begins with a customer’s need and ends with a customer’s need fulfillment. Business Processes are designed to add value for the customer and should not include unnecessary activities. The outcome of a well designed business process is increased effectiveness (value for the customer) and increased efficiency (less costs for the company).


Automation
The process of having a machine or machines accomplish tasks hitherto performed wholly or partly by humans. As used here, a machine refers to any inanimate electromechanical device such as a robot or computer. As a technology, automation can be applied to almost any human endeavor, from manufacturing to clerical and administrative tasks. An example of automation is the heating and air-conditioning system in the modern household. After initial programming by the occupant, these systems keep the house at a constant desired temperature regardless of the conditions outside.

Business process reengineering (BPR) is the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises. BPR reached its heyday in the early 1990's when Michael Hammer and James Champy published their best-selling book, "Reengineering the Corporation". The authors promoted the idea that sometimes radical redesign and reorganization of an enterprise (wiping the slate clean) was necessary to lower costs and increase quality of service and that information technology was the key enabler for that radical change.

Rationalization of procedure is the application of efficiency or effectiveness measures to an organization. Rationalization can occur at the onset of a downturn in an organization's performance or results. It usually takes the form of cutbacks intended to bring the organization back to profitability and may involve layoffs, plant closures, and cutbacks in supplies and resources. It often involves changes in organization structure, particularly in the form of downsizing. The term is also used in a cynical way as a euphemism for mass layoffs.

A Paradigm Shift is when a significant change happens - usually from one fundamental view to a different view. In most cases, some type of major discontinuity occurs as well.
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Michelangelo Macaraeg

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sun Feb 22, 2009 9:55 am

rsgamboa wrote:
In the spectrum of organizational change, which is the most radical type of change: automation, rationalization of procedures, business reengineering, or paradigm shifts?

When we think about the most radical...we tend to understand it as something extreme relating to change...

Among the processes mentioned, Paradigm Shifts have been noted and stated as the most radical type of change since it means changing the way, approach of the organization leading to changing its structure, operation, the way it deals with things..paradigm shifts call for the extreme changes yet it also requires extreme risk and effort...
I also think that business reengineering also is radical yet it is not like paradigm shift when it comes to change...
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mariechelle alcoriza

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Tue Feb 24, 2009 8:46 pm

As for me, the most radical type of change is “paradigm shift”. On my own point of view, I may somehow relate into venturing into something new. As being said by my classmates above, paradigm shift offers high rewards but returns high risks. Unlike, automation wherein it uses control systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and processes, those were just part of the business and for me, it is just a short term solution. As with business process re-engineering, it helps organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to dramatically improve customer service, cut operational costs, and become world-class competitors. But what makes Paradigm Shift radical to others is that, it’s pervasive, it is somehow adapts to the reality. It’s actually a very big risk to the organization but it offers high rewards.

There are really lots of people (but not all) who are afraid of the word change. They don’t like taking risks (small risks would do, but bigger ones, they seem to be scared of it.)
I may also relate it with our life. Life is like a business, now you lose but it really doesn’t matter how many times you’ve lost but what is most important is how you get up everytime you fail, right? There are lessons that we can ponder. Those lessons that will guide us through our passage on our life.
lol!
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Mon Mar 02, 2009 11:16 pm

The most radical type of change would be the Paradigm shift. Basing on the spectrum alone we can already tell that having the highest risk involve would likely mean it is the most radical type of change.

But what is a Paradigm shift? A Paradigm Shift is when a significant change happens - usually from one fundamental view to a different view. In most cases, some type of major discontinuity occurs as well. In laymen terms, Paradigm Shift is a popular, or perhaps, not so popular shift or transformation of the way we Humans perceive events, people, environment, and life altogether.

In an organization changing perspective means changing the way the organization manages and operates. How things work in an organization changes when a paradigm shift is applied. It sometimes lead the organization to a different direction. It will have a high reward if the organization shifts to the right direction and made some improvement. But if the organization shifts in a wrong way, they'll surely lose a lot.


reference:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm_shift
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Thomas Tangian

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Tue Mar 03, 2009 10:05 am

rsgamboa wrote:
In the spectrum of organizational change, which is the most radical type
of change: automation, rationalization of procedures, business reengineering, or paradigm shifts?


For me in my opinion based on my research in the net the term "paradigm shift" has found uses in other contexts, representing the notion of a major change in a certain thought-pattern.

I think "paradigm shift" is the most radical change that will happen in personal beliefs, complex systems or organizations, replacing the former way of thinking or organizing with a radically different way of thinking or organizing. Based on the image posted by hannah it shows already that paradigm shifts is commonly the highest at risk since the company will have to change somethings in maybe 360 deg. of changes so their are some risk at stakes however these risks can be handle by planning and good team work in the company.
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Thu Mar 05, 2009 2:35 pm

Automation

• refers to computerizing processes to speed up the existing tasks.
• improves efficiency and effectiveness.


Rationalization of Procedures

• refers to streamlining of standard operating procedures, eliminating obvious bottlenecks, so that automation makes operating procedures more efficient.
• improves efficiency and effectiveness.


Business Process Reengineering

• refers to radical redesign of business processes.
• Aims at
• eliminating repetitive, paper-intensive, bureaucratic tasks
• reducing costs significantly
• improving product/service quality.


Paradigm Shift

• refers to a more radical form of change where the nature of business and the nature of the organization is questioned.
• improves strategic standing of the organization.


In my views, base from the definition above about the spectrum of the organization, the most radical type of change is the paradigm shift. Paradigm shift is transformation of the business or it improves the business products from better to good. Radical change is like improving from the old ideas to the new ideas. That’s why the paradigm shift can radically change because of the new ideas that are think.
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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Sat Mar 14, 2009 1:21 am

rsgamboa wrote:
In the spectrum of organizational change, which is the most radical type of change: automation, rationalization of procedures, business reengineering, or paradigm shifts?

It is an accepted truth that the most radical organizational change is paradigm shifts. in my opinion since all of the other change in the spectrum can be achievable with less considering factors such as in an automation change where the organization only experiences change in the operational level, same as with rationalization of procedures, and though business reengineering where there could be changes in the operational standards and organizational structure might seem very radical the fact that it could not lead to an overall change in the business is nothing compared to paradigm shifts, where perhaps a combination of the three former chhanges have to happen for it to occur.
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Robert Marvin E. Lee

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before January 26, 2009, 13:00hrs)   Sat Mar 14, 2009 5:29 pm

In the spectrum of organizational change, which is the most radical type of change: automation, rationalization of procedures, business reengineering, or paradigm shifts?

In my opinion every change has its consequence, and facing those consequences has a significant effect in the organization and could have a dramatic effect whether to success or failure. However, I think that no one is planning to fail, so these changes would be a great challenge in every organization which would serve as a key to success.
I think the most drastic type of change would be the paradigm shift which from basic view of the organization to different angle, this type would be similar to evolutionary. Though there are greater risk lies upon this shift because it takes time to plan and accurate data is very critical to success of the organization.
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