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 Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)

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PostSubject: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Tue Nov 25, 2008 9:01 pm

1.What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?
(at least 1000 words)

2. What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?(at least 1000 words)
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harleylovitos

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Thu Dec 04, 2008 12:01 pm

1.What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?
(at least 1000 words)



Before discussing the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the Information System plan. For me a business plan is a direction of a certain business or a goal that must be attain so that the business will be successful and a business plan be obliged to make it before the construction of the business. In Wikipedia A business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. My knowledge about what is a business plan is almost the same to the description of the Wikipedia. Strategic Information System Planning is much focus on improving the management of the business and improves the performance of the business. Since I’m taking up the Management Information System subject now and we are studying about how the organizations do their Strategic Information System Planning (SISP). Strategic Information System Planning making has many factors to be considered the internal factors and external factors. In internal factors you must know what are the S.W.O.T. or Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunity and Threat of the organization. The external sides there are also factors that must consider the P.E.S.T.E or Political, Economical, Sociological, Technology and Environmental. These factors are very important in SISP. We will achieve a good plan for our organization if all these factors will be considered.

A business plan can be profitable or non-profitable. A business plans that aims for a profitable business is more focus and their goals are further gives attention to the financial side. Profitable business plan is the usual kind of a business that the intention is focus in having an income from their capital. For me this type of business plan is much more needed for the people that is business minded and want to earn cash. Non-profitable business plans are usually the public service or the government which their goal is not centers the income of the business but their goals is more focus in giving services to the people. In my own opinion non-profitable business plan is also a pleasant plan that tends to help the people around their society.

The Strategic Information System Planning has internal and external factors that are required to consider in constructing a Strategic Information System Planning. While the business plans provide and may focus internal business plan and external business plan. For the external business plan target goals that are important to external stakeholders, particularly financial stakeholders. Examples of external stakeholders are the investors and the customer for profitable business plan while in non-profitable business plan are the donors and the clients of the non-profit's services. The tax-payers, higher-level government agencies, and international lending bodies such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank can also be consider as a external stakeholders of the non-profitable business plan. For the internal business plans, they may cover the development of a new product, a new service, a new IT system, a restructuring of finance, the refurbishing of a factory or a restructuring of the organization. An internal business plan is often developed in conjunction with a balanced scorecard or a list of critical success factors. This allows success of the plan to be measured using non-financial measures. Business plans that identify and target internal goals, but provide only general guidance on how they will be met are called strategic plans.

Strategic Information System Planning is any technique employed to achieve an ISP must be accomplishable with less than 3% of the IT budget. Additionally, it must be timely, useable, maintainable, able to be iterated into a quality product, and reproducible. IT organizations, once they have completed their initial set of databases and business information systems will find themselves transformed from a project to a release environment. There are two factors that must think about which is that external and internal factors. In the side of the internal factors, the SWOT that must be consider or the Strength Weakness Opportunity and Threats of the organization in making the Strategic Information System Plan. Strength, we should recognize the strength of the organization for us to improve or continue the good deeds of the organization. The strong point of the organization should be properly handle and must be improve or retain since it gives plus point to the organization. Searching for the weakness of the organization is very necessary since it is the weak point of the organization we must find a technique to solve the weak point of the organization and improve it. Opportunity and threat is also a key factor in making a Strategic Information System Planning. External factors are composing of PESTE or the Political Economical Sociological Technology Environment. All of these external factors must consider when making a Strategic Information System Plan from the Political, Economical, Sociological, Technology and Environment so that your are not only focus in your organization but you will also know what is the factors that affects your business outside your organization.

Having the definition of the business plan and the Strategic Information System Planning, we can determine what is the relationship of the two. As well as what are their uses and what are the factors that may consider in having a business plan and the Strategic Information System Plan. I discuss also what are the limitation and focus of the business plan and the SISP. The relationship of the business plan and the Strategic Information System Plan are the business plan is only focusing in the attainment of the goals of the business in short it gives more attention to the business side while the Strategic Information System Plan focuses in improving the management side and to improve the performance of the business. For me the Business Plan and the Strategic Information System are very essential in a business and these two factors can lead you to the right path of business. As a conclusion, if you don’t have goal in your life why you are still living now? We live in this world to reach our own goals and make your goals as your inspiration. Don’t wait for your goal you must work for it.

Reference: Wikipedia



2. What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?(at least 1000 words)



Frustration can occur in planning since your thinking about the future and if your goal of your plan could not be attain or you’re not confident of your plan and you are frustrated in making the plan. In making a Information System plan is not easy to work and you must have patience and dedication to your work and last you must also determine. When the Information System Professionals is developing the Information System they are also considering the user of the Information System, since the user is a huge factor in an Information System. If the information system is properly planned and it was very organized, but there is no user of the Information System even though the system is well made without a user the system is also nothing. An Information System Professional has many tasks which are the following:

1. Strategic Consulting
2. Project & Program Management
3. Network Infrastructure
4. Systems Infrastructure
5. Application Development, Integration & Deployment

With the responsibilities of the an Information System Professional it has a possibility that sometimes the Information System Professional is frustrated and can’t work well.

The two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an Information Systems plan are the failure to secure top management commitment for carrying out the final plan and the second one is the requirement for substantial further analysis after the completion of the IS plan. Both these problems are related to the output of the planning process. The first cause of frustration of the Information System Professional is the failure to secure top management commitment for carrying out the final plan which for me is the confidentiality of plan is not properly secure. Honestly I don’t know and have any idea of the causes of the frustration of the Information System Professional and the user. The statement above which the two most frequently experienced cause of frustration I don’t really understand. In my own idea the cause of frustration of the user in the Information System Planning is they are not properly instruct how to use the Information System.


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PostSubject: The Relationship between Business Plan and S/IS plan and the Frustrations on Doing It   Thu Dec 04, 2008 3:18 pm

What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?

Before establishing a degree of relationship that exists between the business plan and the Strategic/ Information System Plan in an enterprise or business, there seems to be a need to expound on each areas. Defining each terms, giving relative examples and certain situations where each of the business plan and the strategic/ information system plan is essential in this topic so as to create the needed distinction and derive the level or nature of relationship between the business plan and the information system plan, which is to begin with is the question at hand.


If you were to ask me on what would I say if I were asked what is a business plan, I would have to say that it consist of the present but mostly the future undertakings a company has set to achieve their desired goals. An analogy for this is like building a gantt chart, creating a schedule of future activities, setting time lines and milestones and checking for progress or development. But, I reckon that creating a gantt chart is also involved in making a business plan. That is what I think of when asked about a business plan.

As what I read from Wikipedia, a business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. Reading this I can say that I deserve a thumbs up because it sounds fairly the same as what I thought about.
It was also stated that the business goal can be either for for-profit or non-profit reasons. When the plans at hand are focusing on generating income or is made for financial reason it is what we call “For-profit business plan”. While non-profit, from the name itself refers to plans that tend to focus on service goals and doesn't really involve gathering profit or finances. Thou it was said that non-profits may also help on maximizing profit, for the reason that they may create an avenue for the business to be advertised. Business plans also consists if target changes in target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, tax-payer, or larger community. A business plan having changes in perception and branding as its primary goals is called a marketing plan. Business plans may be internally or externally focused. Externally focused plans target goals that are important to external stakeholders, particularly financial stakeholders. They typically have detailed information about the organization or team attempting to reach the goals. Internally focused business plans target intermediate goals required to reach the external goals. They may cover the development of a new product, a new service, a new IT system, a restructuring of finance, the refurbishing of a factory or a restructuring of the organization. An internal business plan is often developed in conjunction with a balanced score card or a list of critical success factors. This allows success of the plan to be measured using non-financial measures. Business plans that identify and target internal goals, but provide only general guidance on how they will be met are called strategic plans.

Now enough about the business plan, let us now venture into the realms of strategic/ information system planning. I was to be asked about my opinion on strategic/ information system planning, I would say that it deals with creating plans of establishing and maintaining an information system department or implement information system in a company.It is a process for developing a strategy and plans for aligning information systems with the business strategies of an organization.

I arrived to that trail of thought for my experience in developing a information system plan in the past. Last semester, we were tasked to create an Information System plan for our chosen company. The data we took consists of what were the current facilities being used, what databases or systems that are currently existing and their topology and applications. The aim of that paper was to generate new plans, ideas or solutions from the problems we have seen in their current IS status. We advised our adopted company to procure other facilities that they lack which seemed necessary for their business and we also suggested developing new systems that seemed beneficial for the company. In other words, it deals with setting ideas to “automize” a company in terms of services and taking their facilities a notch higher through the use of technology. It is a technical document intended for staff with implementation responsibility for a company's databases and systems. It describes the analysis of the Strategic Model to develop the SISP; in appendices it documents the Strategic Data Model in detail. The Strategic Plan identifies information needed by goals, objectives and key performance indicators . The SISP reviewed the mission, vision,direction, goals, strengths, weaknesses, objectives and threats that might occur and exist in a business.In our adopted company the following sectors are the ones in full need of the IS plan: Top management that assures that core competencies and strategic direction are fully supported by IS., the Middle and Operational management who, end up with the tools they need to make immediate and informed decisions, Marketing & Customer Service Management are able to provide better sales and follow-on support and the Information management to be able to manage expectations and technology decisions at all levels of the organization.


From the descriptions above, it can be said that the strategic business plan is a part of the business plan. Business plan is a more general term than strategic/ information planning. Business plan is the over-all “fight plan”, made even before the business was built. Unlike in the Strategic Information Plan, it can be devised before or after establishing the enterprise. A good analogy for this is a program that has threads. A program is the business plan which holds different plans for different sectors of the company to achieve the projected goal or output. Threads (of which I will not explain any further for we are an IT community so I am expecting you are familiar with this ), are plans and one or more of those maybe the Strategic/ Information System plan, which may function differently than others but still stays true to the goal of the main program which is to reach the goals for the continued progress of a business. With all the differences between the two terms being discussed on this topic, we can observe that their main similarity is their main goal and that they are used for the same reason and that is to bring in development.


What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?

Computer based information systems are becoming not only a trend but also essential to the development, and execution of the over-all business plan or strategy. Business managers, however are too often besieged by the inadequate new systems with the missed target dates and over run budgets. These managers are questioning whether their firms are selecting and developing systems effectively and efficiently. To select and develop computer based information system, firms conventionally follow the systems development life cycle. The mystique that the computer is also challenged – that the computer is incomprehensible to the mortal business managers executive and must therefore be managed by technicians who may have a little understanding of the business organization. Finally these actions that the business managers and information system managers should take to develop more effective computer based systems are identified.

Computer based information systems firms are becoming increasingly vital to business and industry, More and more firms are attempting to use them to compete globally. Large and complex systems are being used to support the delivery of existing products and services to customers and for developing new products and services closely tied to their computers. They are making efforts to eliminate internal inefficiencies. Fierce competition, especially in the global market place and the falling price s of computers technology have and will continue to stimulate these endeavors.

In line with these before doing any implementation an information systems plan is to be made to attain the set goal. An Information system plan is a technical document intended for staff with implementation responsibility for an enterprise' databases and systems. It is a process for developing a strategy and plans for aligning information systems with the business strategies of an organization. Its goal is to help an organization provide business-focused Information Systems that enable and support their mission. It describes the analysis of the Strategic Model to develop the strategic information system plan; in appendices it documents the Strategic Data Model in detail. The Strategic Plan identifies information needed by goals, objectives and key performance indicators. The strategic information system plan reviewed the mission, vision,direction, goals, strengths, weaknesses, objectives and threats that might occur and exist in a business.

Like what I stated in the previous assignment, last semester, we were tasked to create an Information System plan for our chosen company. The data we took consists of what were the current facilities being used, what databases or systems that are currently existing and their topology and applications. The aim of that paper was to generate new plans, ideas or solutions from the problems we have seen in their current IS status. We advised our adopted company to procure other facilities that they lack which seemed necessary for their business and we also suggested developing new systems that seemed beneficial for the company. In other words, it deals with setting ideas to “automize” a company in terms of services and taking their facilities a notch higher through the use of technology. In our adopted company the following sectors are the ones in full need of the IS plan: Top management that assures that core competencies and strategic direction are fully supported by IS., the Middle and Operational management who, end up with the tools they need to make immediate and informed decisions, Marketing & Customer Service Management are able to provide better sales and follow-on support and the Information management to be able to manage expectations and technology decisions at all levels of the organization.


Looking back now, I tried to vision the difficulties we had encountered in creating the information system plan, and since I don't have any idea what are, specifically, the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in information systems professionals and users while working on an information systems plan, my reply for the question given above is clearly from my own experience and nothing more. I don't have any other useful reference that would give me an idea whether I am on the right track or not, so forgive me if I got this wrong.

Well, back again to our previous argument, we, stating my group mates and I feeling like we were buried in an inch deep of water when making the IS plan. It was difficult and frustrating for a lot of reasons and if I rate all of it the top two on my list would be: 1. technicality on terms and the job itself 2. time pressure and budget.

IT world, is a whole new, limitless, unending and ever changing dimension. A system or device might be the best today but tomorrow something might surpass it. With this ever changing character, it was hard for us to devise an IS plan that will be suitable for the present status of the economy and the company. In a user's point of view, this degree of technicality, a new whole thing to him, change would be harder to accept.

Time pressure to create an IS plan is another frustrating variable, it not only pressures to the point of emotional stress but it also stresses the wallet or the budget. Lack of budget and if not enough time was given to create an IS plan that would surely be a headache to the IS professionals doing the job.

But I think on more professional level the frustrations would be caused by A: time pressure and B. the uncertainty of doing the job because of top management is not committing to the project or they don't cooperate much with the said project. Doing an information system plan needs help, guidance and assistance from the common employees to the top level management not only in financing the project but also in gathering important information and data to make the IS plan a possible goal. But a business comprises of several people working different tasks and it would be very difficult to get their time and attention, some of them aren't even familiar with the company's ICT aspects.





lol!


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kate_mariel_dizon

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PostSubject: Assignment 2 QUESTION 1   Thu Dec 04, 2008 3:27 pm

Oi. Here we go again… The question was, “What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?

Before we determine the nature of the relationship between business plan and information system plan, let us know first what the two terms mean. According to Wikipedia, business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. Basically, the business plan is a decision-making tool used by organizations to guide them with what to do and to set a clear path towards the things that they should be aiming for. On the other hand, an information systems plan or ISP, according to Michael M. Gorman, is the plan by which databases and information systems of the enterprise are accomplished in a timely manner.

Back in the days, information systems are still non-existent and companies relied on manual or simple processes for their business operations. There was little need for electronic information exchange and if there were, they were only for special purposes and rare occasions. The same goes for the business plans in the old times. I am not saying that they are non-existent, but business plans are pretty much simple and straightforward back then. Creating business plans only requires knowledge generally in finance, human resource management, intellectual property management, supply chain management, operations management, and marketing. These were the basic and fundamental aspects of a business plan.

However, when the use of technology exploded, it did not affect only those in the scientific community but also had a greater impact in the business arena. The effect of this was the birth of information systems. While the introduction of technology to business organizations was still new, only those businesses that are larger and make relatively more profit can afford to incorporate technology into their operations. And at that time, technology was only used as a tool to enhance or boost a company’s performance.

As time passed, more and more organizations, including the smaller ones, were able to acquire and adapt the use of technology, or more specifically information systems, in their operations. The use of information systems in a company was no longer an advantage or an add-on. Instead, information systems became a necessity. Modern organizations are dependent on their information systems for the smooth and successful run of their company. Information systems are now considered to be the backbone of a company. Moreover, business plans also gradually evolved, wherein it is now a part of the company’s business plan to integrate information systems in their operations.

Clearly, with the things I pointed out above, the business plan and the information systems plan have very close relationships with each other in terms of making a business organization successful. Therefore, the nature of the relationship between the business plan and information systems plan should be mutually-inclusive. Let us dissect the relationship between the business plan and Information System plan. They are mutual, which means that both the business plan and information systems plan should share the same objectives, point towards one direction, and aim towards one goal. Informally speaking, they should be on the same wavelength. Why do you think companies make information systems plan? It is not to work towards another goal but instead, it is also to work towards the goal that the business plan has set for the company. The second part of the relationship is “inclusive”. Inclusive means comprehensive or all-encompassing. The business plan and the information systems plan should include all aspects of the company and should make sure that these aspects are included in the plan. Each aspect plays an essential role in the success of the organization and if the business plan and information systems plan fail to include even one of these aspects, this may result to inefficient performance and eventually to the company’s failure. Arrow

I also mentioned earlier that Michael Gorman described information systems plan as “timely”. Note that he used the word “timely”. In my understanding and the way I see it, the business plan lays out all the goals and objectives of the company and the information systems plan lays out the means by which the company can accomplish those goals and objectives in a timely manner. According also to Gorman, there are certain characteristics of an information systems plan that are desirable to produce the optimal performance. These are: 1. Timely, 2. Usable, 3. Maintainable, 4. Quality, and 5. Reproducible. However, I honestly feel that this list is incomplete. I think that, given the situation in today’s modern era, the information systems plan should also be expandable or able to evolve. Why do I say so? We cannot be sure of the changes that a company would undergo. Therefore, it is only desirable that the information systems plan can adapt and accommodate these changes. In the same way, since the information systems plan and business plan share a mutual relationship, the business plan should evolve with the information systems plan and vice versa. In other words, one cannot be left behind by the other.

From the above things that I have written down, I could say that the business plan and information systems plan have to work in parallel to ensure the success of a business organization. The two plans- business and information systems- should reflect the organization’s vision, mission, goals and objectives. They should reflect what the company is aiming for. And to ensure that they are consistent, whenever there are changes in one, the other should also be able to accommodate these changes. The business plan and information systems plan are now critical factors in an organization. While they may be separate entities altogether, their content should be a reflection of what the company wants to achieve and they should be able to determine the goals of the company. After laying out the goals, it only follows that these two coincide with each other so they can both still work harmoniously and drive the business organization towards its success. cheers cheers cheers

(question 2 to be continued...)
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PostSubject: Assign 2: What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?   Thu Dec 04, 2008 5:21 pm

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?

Computer based information systems are becoming not only a trend but also essential to the development, and execution of the over-all business plan or strategy. Business managers, however are too often besieged by the inadequate new systems with the missed target dates and over run budgets. These managers are questioning whether their firms are selecting and developing systems effectively and efficiently. To select and develop computer based information system, firms conventionally follow the systems development life cycle. The mystique that the computer is also challenged – that the computer is incomprehensible to the mortal business managers executive and must therefore be managed by technicians who may have a little understanding of the business organization. Finally these actions that the business managers and information system managers should take to develop more effective computer based systems are identified.

Computer based information systems firms are becoming increasingly vital to business and industry, More and more firms are attempting to use them to compete globally. Large and complex systems are being used to support the delivery of existing products and services to customers and for developing new products and services closely tied to their computers. They are making efforts to eliminate internal inefficiencies. Fierce competition, especially in the global market place and the falling price s of computers technology have and will continue to stimulate these endeavors.

In line with these before doing any implementation an information systems plan is to be made to attain the set goal. An Information system plan is a technical document intended for staff with implementation responsibility for an enterprise' databases and systems. It is a process for developing a strategy and plans for aligning information systems with the business strategies of an organization. Its goal is to help an organization provide business-focused Information Systems that enable and support their mission. It describes the analysis of the Strategic Model to develop the strategic information system plan; in appendices it documents the Strategic Data Model in detail. The Strategic Plan identifies information needed by goals, objectives and key performance indicators. The strategic information system plan reviewed the mission, vision,direction, goals, strengths, weaknesses, objectives and threats that might occur and exist in a business.

Like what I stated in the previous assignment, last semester, we were tasked to create an Information System plan for our chosen company. The data we took consists of what were the current facilities being used, what databases or systems that are currently existing and their topology and applications. The aim of that paper was to generate new plans, ideas or solutions from the problems we have seen in their current IS status. We advised our adopted company to procure other facilities that they lack which seemed necessary for their business and we also suggested developing new systems that seemed beneficial for the company. In other words, it deals with setting ideas to “automize” a company in terms of services and taking their facilities a notch higher through the use of technology. In our adopted company the following sectors are the ones in full need of the IS plan: Top management that assures that core competencies and strategic direction are fully supported by IS., the Middle and Operational management who, end up with the tools they need to make immediate and informed decisions, Marketing & Customer Service Management are able to provide better sales and follow-on support and the Information management to be able to manage expectations and technology decisions at all levels of the organization.


Looking back now, I tried to vision the difficulties we had encountered in creating the information system plan, and since I don't have any idea what are, specifically, the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in information systems professionals and users while working on an information systems plan, my reply for the question given above is clearly from my own experience and nothing more. I don't have any other useful reference that would give me an idea whether I am on the right track or not, so forgive me if I got this wrong.

Well, back again to our previous argument, we, stating my group mates and I feeling like we were buried in an inch deep of water when making the IS plan. It was difficult and frustrating for a lot of reasons and if I rate all of it the top two on my list would be: 1. technicality on terms and the job itself 2. time pressure and budget.

IT world, is a whole new, limitless, unending and ever changing dimension. A system or device might be the best today but tomorrow something might surpass it. With this ever changing character, it was hard for us to devise an IS plan that will be suitable for the present status of the economy and the company. In a user's point of view, this degree of technicality, a new whole thing to him, change would be harder to accept.

Time pressure to create an IS plan is another frustrating variable, it not only pressures to the point of emotional stress but it also stresses the wallet or the budget. Lack of budget and if not enough time was given to create an IS plan that would surely be a headache to the IS professionals doing the job.

But I think on more professional level the frustrations would be caused by A: time pressure and B. the uncertainty of doing the job because of top management is not committing to the project or they don't cooperate much with the said project. Doing an information system plan needs help, guidance and assistance from the common employees to the top level management not only in financing the project but also in gathering important information and data to make the IS plan a possible goal. But a business comprises of several people working different tasks and it would be very difficult to get their time and attention, some of them aren't even familiar with the company's ICT aspects.




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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Thu Dec 04, 2008 5:58 pm

What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and IS plan? 1000 words

In the current business world, competitions are intense and very active. When a single company decides to improve and innovate, all other companies of the same industry will follow, if not immediately after, it would be later. These fierce competitions are what driving the companies to improve and develop better business strategies to boost their status on the world market. A definite example of this is the fuel marketing industry. Currently in our community, Caltex, Shell and Petron are the leading names when it comes to selling fuels and its distribution throughout the country. Even companies such as Flying V and UniOil are starting to enter the industry and engage in the competition between the veteran companies. When UniOil decides to drop prices on their fuel, other fuel companies also follow. If not, they risk losing customers to other companies that offers cheaper fuel than they have. This kind of competition is one of the common practices and can be found being done by many other companies in other industries. And this intense competition is one of the factors that motivate companies and/or organizations to finance and invest in the innovations and development of Information Strategies.
Nowadays, you can not have a company running under old and traditional system if you want to keep up with the rest of the world and remain competitive. In the old days, using gadgets and machines on manufacturing processes or marketing operations can be held as only optional choices done only to get and interest the customers or consumers. Now, deployment of this equipments and implementation of their advantages are the norm and necessary to remain in the competitive circle. Without it, it could lead to other companies overshadowing your existence and call for your sudden and quick retirement. What I mean here is the Information Technology. Implementing the use of Information Technology in business practices or strategies can be also called as Information System. Companies now add the Information System to the formula in operating successfully and remain competitive. Information System can also cause a company to achieve their breakthrough in the industry.
Now, what is Information System all about? Information System can be stated as the implementation of IT practices and practicalities in business areas specializing in handling information from transactions and operations. In other words, Information System is not only the equipment itself but all the necessary components for the Information Technology to work and be implemented. In simpler terms, it is the system composed of people and tools that bring about the optimal capability of the entire system and provide solutions to traditional business problems. An example of this is the application of necessary software solutions that brings and handles information throughout the entire operation or transaction of the business system. Combined with the right tools and mind for the job, Information Systems can be the tool for the success of the business companies.
Information System can not exist in the company without the company having a prior business strategy or plan. This business plan for the company holds the entire makeup of the company explaining what the company is consisting of, how the company operates, the direction which the company should take and other necessary ideas or plans. Information Systems plan on the other hand, is for the preparation of the Information System that operates inside the business operation. So what is the relationship of the Information Systems plan and the Business plan?
It is important to determine first what is the significance of those two plans to the business company. The business plan is what you can call as the core of the business itself. It represents the blueprint of the company depicting how it is going to be built, with what materials and techniques that suits the company the best. Business plan discusses the trivia of the business, may it be its practices or strategies but the important is how it is going to grow and flourish. There are companies that aim to be the best in their area or industry simply by pursuing to develop and improve that industry itself along with their innovations. Some decide to be the best in serving the consumers with the best quality service or product they may manufacture or produce while others decide to be globally competitive and keep up with the rest of the world. Targets for these companies may greatly differ but their business plan must be direct and precise as it depicts the path the business will take. Clearly stating and cementing the ultimate goal of the company alone would, in due course serve the company significantly because a clear and concrete path was laid out in the first place. Those with no clear and highly structured business plan may lose direction and collapse as the ultimate result.

Information Systems plan is meant for the system running under the company. While the business plan can be related to the blueprint, IS plan can be envisioned as the reinforcement to that blueprint sometimes the revision with the intention of making it better. Introducing an Information Systems plan into the business company can cause many major effects to the company. These effects can not be finalized as a good thing since it only depends to the effectiveness of the Information Systems plan and its implementation. Since the concept of IS plan is new and still foreign even to the veterans, it is still under the issue of instability since some companies do not even know how to react and adapt to the environment infused with an IS plan even though the concept is originally good and beneficial.

So what should the nature be with these two plans? Nothing concrete can be finalized by an inexperienced mind’s speculation but it is understandable to debate that some points can be sought out of from a newbie’s perspective. Fundamentally, the business plan and IS plan work hand-in-hand with each other although IS plan depends more on the business plan since the business plan can be made without the utilization of the IS plan. Although it is good have the IS plan to only support the business plan but its real potential would not be realized. The greatest concept that can be conceived during this phase is to ultimately mix and combine the business plan and IS plan in order to serve the business company significantly. However, this concept can not be easily fulfilled. Having two plans with entirely different nature be combined is very difficult and can be inconceivable.

As the finalization, it would be wise and practical to just create an IS plan that would support and improve the status of the business company in pursuing their business plan. Having a nature that would go hand-in-hand and naturally connect the two plans is a very good idea.

What are the two most experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan? 1000 words

Developing an Information Systems plan has been quite a great ordeal when it comes to fulfilling all the necessary parts in the plan for the user while maintaining that the Information Systems plan will be followed by the company for the IS professionals.
In the development of a good Information Systems plan for a company, the Information Systems professional needs to model it after the demands and needs of the company and its users. A good IS plan does not only serve the system of the company but also the users and its managers after all, the IS plan only works best when followed and utilized by the users. Without any users, the Information Systems plan can not be enacted in the company since Information Systems include people as a necessary component for its success and completion. For without people, it can not perform.
In the development of the Information Systems plan, many factors and things are being considered. Factors as how the users would react to the IS plan, how the IS plan would create an impact to the current system or to the business company, what necessary actions should be taken to follow the IS plan and how it would bring improvement and profit for the company are only but some of the necessary things that needs to be thought carefully so that no things that might be necessary and significant will be overlooked since the IS plan would be implanted to the company and would affect it greatly. Taking the necessary and massive precaution is only practical since the IS plan may shape the business company into whatever they have planned and put into the IS plan.
One of the major frustrations between Information Systems professional and users is complete misunderstanding or disagreement leading to discontentment and implementation failure. Many users expect things from the IS plan and since they are not specialist on the field of IS, they are often met with disappointments caused by misunderstanding the IS plan. Disagreement with various things can also occur since users do not see the IS plan as the IS planners see it so complete cooperation and collaboration is greatly necessary between the users and planners in order to succeed in coming up of an IS plan that would suit both sides. This will cause the relationship between the IS plan and business plan to crumble usually leading to the disregard of the IS plan as companies tends to focus more on what they have and what quick solutions they could grasp. Since most companies can only afford to foresee and govern on what things that could make quick profit, they usually also go for the quick solutions and more traditional ones since they are more familiar with it.
The second one is inconsistency. Since Information Systems plan usually takes place over in a long period of time, and during that time, the IS plan should be followed and implemented. Usually, most companies, when dealing over a long time plan, lose its objectivity and wanders from the path that was laid out in the plan. This causes problems in the IS plan since it could not be followed directly anymore and many patch-ups and revision will be made in order to match the current flow of the company. The IS plan will then lose its significant impact and ultimate goal in delivering the advancements and benefits to the company. And since the IS plan developed is not usually fluid to what may happen to the company over its implementation period, the company usually chooses to tamper the IS plan instead of the company changing and adapting to the plan itself. This kind of practice is common to companies that lose sight of the significance of the IS plan or those companies that are undergoing in many problems such as tight budget due to unprecedented events that caused them to lose money and spend more, and change of management of the company, which makes the managers or officials unfamiliar and uninformed about the IS plan that was planned before their management.
Indeed, the state of Information Systems plan on many companies is unstable and difficult from the start but many other companies that have succeeded in following and implementing the Information Systems plan have gained competitive and significant edge in the business world. As many companies slowly crumble, those with more sturdy foundation usually reinforced with IS implementations are more likely the ones to be left standing and continuing to rise. For today is the time for the rise of the Technologies, surely those that do not adapt will be left behind.
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Thu Dec 04, 2008 8:47 pm

What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and IS plan? 1000 words

Last time during the reporting of the previous reporters, one of them discussed about the problem regarding information systems strategic planning, one of which is that the business plan must be aligned with the strategic plan. So what is a business plan? There are lots of explanations of what is a business plan means. One of those meaning is that a business plan is a written document that details a proposed or existing venture. It will typically explain the vision, current status, expected needs. From the website wikipedia.com, a business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. The business goals being attempted may be for-profit or non-profit. For-profit business plans typically focus on financial goals. Non-profit and government agency business plans tend to focus on service goals, although non-profits may also focus on maximizing profit. Business plans may also target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, tax-payer, or larger community. A business plan having changes in perception and branding as its primary goals is called a marketing plan. Business plans may be internally or externally focused. Externally focused plans target goals that are important to external stakeholders, particularly financial stakeholders. They typically have detailed information about the organization or team attempting to reach the goals. With for-profit entities, external stakeholders include investors and customers. External stake-holders of non-profits include donors and the clients of the non-profit's services. For government agencies, external stakeholders include tax-payers, higher-level government agencies, and international lending bodies such as the IMF, the World Bank, various economic agencies of the UN, and development banks. Internally focused business plans target intermediate goals required to reach the external goals. They may cover the development of a new product, a new service, a new IT system, a restructuring of finance, the refurbishing of a factory or a restructuring of the organization. An internal business plan is often developed in conjunction with a balanced scorecard or a list of critical success factors. This allows success of the plan to be measured using non-financial measures. Business plans that identify and target internal goals, but provide only general guidance on how they will be met are called strategic plans. Operational plans describe the goals of an internal organization, working group or department. Project plans, sometimes known as project frameworks, describe the goals of a particular project. They may also address the project's place within the organization's larger strategic goals. And if we tend to ask the relationship of the business plan and the strategic plan, let’s now define what a strategic plan is.

Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people. Various business analysis techniques can be used in strategic planning, including SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats ) and PEST analysis (Political, Economic, Social, and Technological analysis) or STEER analysis involving Socio-cultural, Technological, Economic, Ecological, and Regulatory factors. According to other source, strategic plan is a document used by an organization to align its organization and budget structure with organizational priorities, missions, and objectives. It is also a process of comprehensive, integrative program planning that considers, at a minimum, the future of current decisions, overall policy, organizational development, and links to operational plans. And according to the project management club, strategic planning is a basic document for planning of different projects of the programme and their sub-projects. It is based on the content of the Financing Memorandum (FM) and the Monitoring and Evaluation Matrix attached to the Financing Proposal and translates the two documents into detailed operational terms. A satisfactory strategic plan must be realistic and attainable so as to allow managers and entrepreneurs to think strategically and act operationally. During our Management Information Systems 1, we have gone doing business plan on a certain company. The information and other facts of that business plan was been discussed accordingly to the in-charge of the said company. Of course, according to our instructor, we may lift up the company or put it down according to what we have decided to do. As what I have stated above, strategic planning must have the SWOT analysis. In to our preparation and to our research about the company, we have then listed some of the weaknesses and strength of the company. In such way we can decide how to build up a company. Actually, we haven’t give our Information Systems Strategic Plan to the company we have chosen. Not because we might cause those troubles, we are sure that the strategic plan we done are according also to their progress.

From the relative discussion of the difference of the two and the similarity and how helpful one to other, we can now define the relationship of the two. As what Hannah has said to her article, strategic planning is part of the business planning. Strategic planning have three question with connections to the business planning. First is what must be done. Next is from whom can we do it. Followed by the question, how can a business excel. From the third question, it can be defined more likely in a question, "How can we beat or avoid competition?". A business plan also acquire those questions from their first approach to the industrial world. So it simply means that the strategic plan is an alignment of the business plan in which it may be a problem on doing strategic plan of a company as well. Strategic planning requires more understanding because this may result on bringing a company down. But more likely, a strategic planning can be a result from a business plan. So the relationship of the two? Business plan is much with the connection of a strategic plan since they are the helpful tool for the improvement of a business.


What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?(at least 1000 words)

Strategic planning must be align with the business plan. Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people. Various business analysis techniques can be used in strategic planning, including SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats ) and PEST analysis (Political, Economic, Social, and Technological analysis) or STEER analysis involving Socio-cultural, Technological, Economic, Ecological, and Regulatory factors. According to other source, strategic plan is a document used by an organization to align its organization and budget structure with organizational priorities, missions, and objectives. It is also a process of comprehensive, integrative program planning that considers, at a minimum, the future of current decisions, overall policy, organizational development, and links to operational plans. And according to the project management club, strategic planning is a basic document for planning of different projects of the programme and their sub-projects. It is based on the content of the Financing Memorandum (FM) and the Monitoring and Evaluation Matrix attached to the Financing Proposal and translates the two documents into detailed operational terms. A satisfactory strategic plan must be realistic and attainable so as to allow managers and entrepreneurs to think strategically and act operationally. In align with that, strategic plan must be reliable and suitable for the need of the company.

In doing a strategic plan, it is not really known to everyone that there are frustrations that may trigger. Frustrations in a way that it may cause depression and stress to the professionals and users that are doing it. In doing an Information Strategic plan, it is really a must that the user and the professionals doing it must first determine the company’s background and other facts and information that can help and then again be a useful tool for the planning.

Computing systems this era raises high in a short period of time. Though our country is a 5 year behind than those countries abroad, still using internet is a common tool for someone like in communications. And more likely in a business, it is also a trend of using internet and intranet in their operations since it can help progress their company. Now a day, an even small scale business also acquires using internet and computers for their daily routine. That is because it can help them improve their skills and at the same time it can lessen the work load since using computers doesn’t requires much time. Relatively, why I’m discussing those computer trend marketing in such a way, since that industry now a days is a computer based industry, lot of professionals and users must be aware of using computer in such a way that it is one of the basic tools for doing the planning.

As what I have stated in the first question of this slide, during our Management Information Systems 1, we did a strategic planning in one of the pronounce company in the city today. Not only here in Davao is this company well known, also to the other sites of the city. During our discussions with the group, we have decided to have each an individual task. From that then, we can focus on our topic. But that was one of the problems we have encountered. Misunderstanding. That is one of the frustrations we have. We didn’t know what to do and on the other side we don’t know the topics of our other group. At the end of the compilation, the report of one is not related to the report of the other one, and in vice versa. We then realize our mistake after we have compiled the technical paper. So how can we let ourselves give the technical paper to the company we have if there and else we don’t understand what we did, how much more to them. If such case, we are then called to be the professionals who done lousy approach to the planning for the company we are required to have the plan. Then the user also, such a way that there were the people involved in that strategic plan, are then also approach us lousy for the mistake of some persons. Like what I said above, strategic plan must be reliable so that the company must excel in accordance to era.

Another frustration that may trigger in the planning of this IS plan is the time. Time problem is not only for this kind of situation. Even in our other subjects, we do have difficulty in time management. Stress may occur if we hear the word “deadline”. That can cause cramming that can cause also mistakes. Time management may not be a frustration if and when it was been managed accordingly. But also time management requires more budget than of any other. Since this planning is suitable and a provider for the company, there is also a satisfaction that it can really cost big. Like our technical paper before. By committing mistakes, another big cost is at stake.

That frustrations I have stated is only my point of view. Since I have encountered strategic planning before, I have then encountered such frustration things like that. And that frustration I have encountered might then encountered by those professionals.






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Robert Marvin E. Lee

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PostSubject: Asignment 2   Thu Dec 04, 2008 10:21 pm

1.What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?

Success and progress are both common issues that the company usually aims. In terms of success which inline to their goal in daily routine of days, hindrances are unavoidable yet construable with proper and right usage of information and controlling. A big factor which maybe consider in area of some companies or business now a days are the people were inside the company because every individual is the most vital factor that is considerable as the most dominant that runs the business these human anatomically living things. I remember one time in the sermon of our beloved professor that MIS or Managerial Information System can be decompose in three sub major wherein one of those is the Hardware. As far as I understood in his sermons, hardware can easily be change to something novel. If your computer runs so low you can change your specs for convenient usage. The Second thing which composed also in the major where in MIS is the software that is also a part of the MIS range where program system is being checked if it’s running correctly if not, then change or repair. As you can notice the previous two sub-majors in MIS are replaceable yet they’re only things which composed the whole system, they’re only technology that is used in order for the business to operate rapidly and efficient at the right amount of time. The third ware is the most imperative property that composed MIS yet the most powerful and manipulative to the latter ware. PeopleWare that composed of every individual and heavenly body that operates the every cycle of the business and system. The point of my basis that Peopleware had dominated on the three wares is that; upon the hearing of homilies of our professor in his discussion, I learned and distinguish and prove that my hypothesis right. That even without these other hardware and software people can continue their business but that is not my focal point, my point of view is that those two wares namely, hardware and software can easily be replace without hesitating by replacing them, but human factor would surely big no because every individual plays a major role in the business. You might wonder as reader why I need to discuss the relationship that composed the MIS, the mere fact that these would be my basis on my answer on the preceding discussion with these series of case study.
Let’s snap back to reality of the question what should be the nature of the relationship between the Business plan and IS plan. Discoursing about the two methods of planning in the company plays significant part for the whole business. Both must take engage on serious matter of planning of what the transaction had agreed in the majority of all. Agreement of all is the most common and practical in all transaction but enhancing the nature of both world steps another revolution of what must take place first, is the Business plan revolve around the IS plan? Or on the opposite side the IS plan circumnavigate around the business plan. It’s so hard to distinguish both worlds because of its different role but it only aims one direction and that is succession. As far as my readings brought me, Alan R. Simon defined business plan “Is a document that contains the specific of what service you will offer, to whom and through what channels they will be directed on how the operations will be financed, and many other decision. No decision should made in isolation from one another. The point at which you bring all of these decision points together is your business plan”. In contrast of the IS plan also Michael M. Gorman stated that “The information systems plan project determines the sequence for implementing specific information systems. The goal of the strategy is to deliver the most valuable business information at the earliest time possible in the most cost-effective manner. The end product of the information systems project is an information systems plan (ISP)”. The component of business plan also shows the Information System experience. Making my own reflection about the natural relationship between Business plan and Information System plan, The business plan is like a mind, and the conscience is the IS. The conscience tells the mind of what things must consider or to do right how ever the mind takes control over the body to make this movement work properly. Information system planning includes strategical plan on daily basis of outcome and make conclusion of what the outcome has sum up. The nature of both worlds must work hand and hand. IS plan is only a tool on the business it can make stratify decision for the best solution of the company it is the business plan to control and operate the given solution for the problem.



Reference:

Michael M. Gorman ,December 2008, Information System Plan article, September 1, 1999 , www.tdan.com, “http://www.tdan.com/view-articles/5262”

Alan R. Simon, Nov. 2008, Business Plan, July 1995, “How to be a successful computer Consultant Third Edition – p.100”


2. What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?

Frustration is like a malady on a working place specially on a big company when everything is on its critical task. Pressure is the number one cause for this illness, its unrecognizable for the person who is on this state of disease. Exhaust over the work that let this humanoid freak to evolve in to frustration. Symptoms for this disease is the unexpected occurrence of error or unmanageable plan. Thus thing is the case of the effect for this disease yet uncontrollable situation can be minimize if things is planned strategically that calculates also the possibilities of error to eliminate the chances of experiencing. As I had discuss earlier in the previous question about the Peopleware, we can recognized the fact that people is the main reason for the whole business to run. This frequently problem is already common on the work place and this will be my focal point of my discussion are the two most frequent experience cause of frustration and users while working on an IS plan. To directly start with this statement, I think the most reasonable cause of frustration in IS professional and users is the involvement of other human factor or the intervention of hierarchal people on the upper area while on the process of IS plan. I think IS professional had planned best solution for the company though IS is only a extension for the company an their only tool for the succession. Frustration will wrap around in every individual if the plan is on process and will change, I think this would be the leading case of frustration in IS professional and user, the absence of consistency. The second part of my discourse is the second cause of frustration though I hardly think over it because I'm not still part of the team that involves on it, but I think the most reasonable cause for all of this is the lack of cooperation in a team that IS professional and users don't agree on the expected output of what had presented in the plan. This would trigger both parties to work on different ways and have their own idea. The plan had presented will be rubbish. Exhaust over IS team and users will cause a negative effect over the company and business. Unexpected instances like the time dilatation, transaction difficulties, unplanned happenings and etc. can also be a source of frustrations though proper planning is present, still there is an unexpected possibilities that is out of our control. Thus, this out of controlling instances can serves us a key point for our advanced preparation in any type of difficulties.
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PostSubject: Assignment 2   Fri Dec 05, 2008 8:16 am

Question # 1

Having a business plan and an IS plan is an essential procedure to ensure the success of a business or an organization. These two will serve as a solid backbone and a guide for the business to reach its full potentials and succeed. First thing that is important is to know the definition of the two. This will help us in determining the nature of their relationship.
A business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals. It is very much important to know the goals of our business so that we would know where we are going, what path we should take in relevance to our business. Considering as an example our daily living, it would be an advantage for us if we set goals for a day, a week, a month or a year. With these goals in mind, our decisions will be in accordance to the goals that we have specified. Also included in the business plan are the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. The most important characteristic of a goal is attainability. We should be realistic in defining our goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. Business plans are decision-making tools. There is no fixed content for a business plan; the contents would depend on the person who will be creating the plan in line with the goals being created. A business plan should contain whatever information is needed to decide whether or not to pursue a goal.
An Information System Plan (ISP) is primarily made to incorporate the latest technology that we have to the processes and different transactions in the business or organization. It is made to ensure that the business will have the best results in the different transactions that it will be dealing with. The plan will include both the software and hardware component of the Information System. The most important thing in a business is information. These information will be used for the development of the business, adding to the reasons why careful IS planning should be made to safeguard this important asset of the business; its important information and files.
For us to determine the quality of our ISP we should look at this following characteristics:

Timely The ISP must be timely. An ISP that is created long after it is needed is
useless. We should always consider the timeliness of our plan or else every effort will be for nothing. In almost all cases, it makes no sense to take longer to plan work than to perform the work planned.

Useable The ISP must be useable. It should exist in sections that once adopted can be parceled out to project managers and immediately started. As an IT student we all know this characteristic is very important because it should surely affect out end-users, which is why our projects should always be useable.

Maintainable New business opportunities, new computers, latest technology, business
mergers, etc. all affect the ISP. The ISP must support quick changes to the estimates, technologies employed, and possibly even to the fundamental project sequences, with this, our business wll be dynamic when it comes to changes for further improvements. Once these changes are accomplished, the new ISP should be just a few computer program executions away. When I do programming, I always see to it that what I am doing can be easily maintained.

Quality While the ISP must be a quality product, no ISP is ever perfect on the first
try. As the ISP is executed, the metrics employed to derive the individual
project estimates become refined as a consequence of new hardware
technologies, code generators, techniques, or faster working staff.

For the record, according to WhiteMarsh Information System Corporation, every year, $300-700 million dollar corporations spend about 5% of their gross income on information systems and their supports. That's from about $15,000,000 to $35,000,000! A significant part of those funds support enterprise database, a philosophy of database system applications that enable corporations to research the past, control the present, and plan for the future.

From the information stated above, it is clear that both business plan and IS plan should be made for the benefit of the business. With regards to the nature of the relationship of the two these are the things that I would like to share:


1. Business plan and IS plan compliments each other.
- Since the two plans are directed towards the improvement and development of the business. One would not function well without the other. If a company will take for granted the IS plan, it would be difficult to support whatever plans or goals that were made in the business plan. The same thing when we speak vice versa, if the company will focus on the IS plan, it would not be that advantageous or effective because we need the goals specified in the business plan to create the best IS plan as possible. In short, both should be planned carefully, taking the process of business development as a whole that if one part or process is missing the whole part would not function well.

2. Lead the way!
- For the Information System to reach its maximum effect, it should be guided by the business plan. We all know how important the goals are in our business, that is why any improvement in either hardware or software in the IS field should be in line with these stated goals. If not, even though how much effort we put on improving our IS, it would all be for nothing. The goals that we have made should guide us in the improvements that we will be making in the IS part of the business. With things, no efforts and assets will be put into waste.

3. Together we stand, together we fall
- A good business plan will always ensure a great possibility of having a good IS plan. Since development on the IS plan will be in line with the goals stated in the business plan, any failure resulting from poor business planning would also affect the effectiveness and potency of the Information System. If one fails, the other might fail also. If the IS plan it not properly planned and implemented, the business plan will never reach its desired goal.

4. Things will never change
- Years may pass, the relationship of the two will never change. The fact the was believed to be true years and years ago would still be the same for today and for the many years to come. The principles regarding both plans might change, and I’m pretty sure it will.



Question # 2

Frustration is the feeling that accompanies an experience of being thwarted in attaining your goals. Every time we want to do something, most of us immediately lay out a plan. But these plans are never an assurance that everything will go our way. There would still be chances that we will end up being frustrated because we were not able to reached our desired output. This is quite a sad news but many of us falls to this kind of situation. The same is true when it come to IS planning. I always believe that it is never an easy job, that is why there are a lot of methodologies that IS managers follow to ensure that their will be no problem while working on the IS plan and also to guarantee a greater chance of success.

Frustrations arise when we fail to meet our milestones. It is also similar with working on an IS plan. Failing to meet the goals that we have set in our plan would greatly increase the chance of ending up frustrated. That is why one of the reasons of frustrations in IS professionals is the mistake of creating the right plan. We all have our own way and procedures of planning. Being a unique individual, makes us think differently and react on things differently. The most common way that we create our plan is to set time on when one task will be finished. This is how we measure our performance in carrying a certain task. We try to predict when we can finish something. This mistake comes unnoticed. The same thing goes with me. When I plan, I specify the things that I will do, make the objectives for that plan and set a time on how long it will take me to finish it. Amidst cautious planning on what I will do, I always end up failing to achieve my plans. Even though I experience it often, I never found out the reason behind it. On the articles that I have read, it is said that “planning is generally done with the wrong purpose in mind”. I was surprised on the things that I have discovered. It made me realize a lot of things. Looking at the definition of the word “PLAN” in a dictionary, it states that plan is a series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished. When I tried to ponder on this definition, upon pondering on the definition, I noticed that there is something missing. The definition never mentioned about setting up a time on when my plan will be finished. I’ve learned that a plan should not be focused on the time taken to finish it, rather we should focus on the process on how to carry out our plan. This is what the author meant when he said “planning is generally done with the wrong purpose in mind”. If we put a time on our plan, we usually end up wondering why the final day had come but still we are not finished with what is to be done. There are many things that might come along with this. Some of us get tired because even though how much effort we put on our plan we still end up achieving nothing. The most unwanted thing that might happen is that it may lead to quitting. I guess this would be the right time to change our mind setting regarding the process of planning. We must not focus the time, rather we should give more attention to the process on how to get the job done. Identify our objectives, set the diffident task and subtask to be done and immediately consider the things or resources that we will need. This principle is very much applicable to IS planning. IS professionals should try to consider this thoughts or principles especially if they are experiencing the things that I myself have experienced in creating my own plan.

The second most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan is the failure to secure top management commitment for carrying out the final plan. This happen frequently in almost all major projects, may it be on school or other situations like in business. We are very vigilant and optimistic when we are just starting to accomplish our plan. The eagerness, focus, attention and other characters needed for a good start is always present. But a good stand doesn’t always end up with a good end. Generally most people have difficulties in finishing what they have started. We have the tendency to feel tired at the finishing part of our project. There are a lot of reasons behind this. With regards to IS planning, this may happen because of the lack of a good IS manager or team leader. The whole success of a plan generally lies in the hand of the team leader whose crucial responsibilities arise when everything is not going right. Another reason why we have difficulty in finishing what we have started is the lack of support. A team that is responsible for an IS planning have a hard time doing what they are ought to do if there are no support coming from personnel or people outside their team. Adding to this list is the fact that IS planning requires experience and expertise in order to have a good outcome. Just like what I have said it is never an easy job. It is also possible that the advances in Information Technology and their applicability in organizations has outpaced all formal methodologies available to be used by IS managers. We all know that the advancements in IT has a fast pace. We must cope up with this speed in order not to be left behind. The things that I have mentioned earlier contribute to the reason why frustrations happen on IS professionals. If we will look at our experiences, we always feel frustration when we are nearly at the end of what we are doing. Others try to solve the problem and goes on, but some gets tired and eventually quits.

Frustration is a normal feeling. We must accept the reality that there will always be a time in our life that everything is not going our way. May it be in our own personal life, at school or at work, we should always put in mind that planning is a good practice but it will never ensure that everything will be well. We may never know when problems will come but one thing is for sure, it will always come with a solution.






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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Fri Dec 05, 2008 10:01 am

What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?


A business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals… The business goals being attempted may be for-profit or non-profit. For-profit business plans typically focus on financial goals. Non-profit and government agency business plans tend to focus on service goals, although non-profits may also focus on maximizing profit. Business plans may also target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, tax-payer, or larger community… Business plans are decision-making tools. There is no fixed content for a business plan. Rather the content and format of the business plan is determined by the goals and audience. A business plan should contain whatever information is needed to decide whether or not to pursue a goal. [1]


Business plan is an entrepreneur’s lifeline. As stated above these are the goals and the plans to reach the goals. Having business plan allows the business to function on the right way as they go along h their transactions everyday. Having business plan allows the business to look forward to what will happen to its future. This is how setting up a business plan is essential. Careful preparation of a business plan provides an entrepreneur with an opportunity to pull together all facets of a new venture, to examine the consequences of different strategies and tactics, and to determine the human and financial requirements for launching and building an idea into a viable venture (Timmons et al., 1985). For budding entrepreneurs impatient to implement their ideas, writing a business plan often seems to be an unnecessary academic exercise standing in the way of what is really important to them, which is opening their doors for business.[2] Also, creating a business plan is too intricate for business plan is the tool for decision making. In case that the personnel has an important decision to make, he / she must see the business plan first to know if the step that he / she will be taking is in line with the business plan or if it is will flow parallel to the goals. Precise decisions are necessary to attain progress and the correct the decision can be made with the help of the business plan. So the need to have a business plan is necessary.

Strategic Information Planning (SIP) is the analysis of a corporation's information and processes using business information models together with the evaluation of risk, current needs and future requirements. The result is an action plan showing the desired course of events necessary to align information use and needs with the strategic direction of the company. It is important to note is that SIP is a management function, not a technical one. (Battaglia, 1991).… Corporate success depends not only on profits, but also on the company's ability to satisfy its customers. One of the primary means of attaining that ability is by implementing a Strategic Information Planning (SIP) function.[2]

The progress of the business is dependent to the Information Systems Plan. The breakdown of the business is dependent to the Information Systems Plan. There must be analysis, planning, vision, and communication. Analysis requires a study from the information being gathered which maybe collected from observation or list of data. Analysis calls for a focused interpretation and understanding to what has been gathered and subjecting it to a solution. Failure to analyze data is a failure to produce a good quality solution. Analysis is crucial and needs to be done unhurriedly with concentration. Planning will be the next step after the data has been analyzed. Planning is setting up a solution. And the solution must also be aligned with the vision of the business.

A business plan allocates resources and measures the results of your actions, helping you set realistic goals and make decisions[3] .Research on SISP include studies prescribing methods and techniques, studies outlining conceptual models, studies identifying success factors or problems, studies on construct development and studies involving hypothesis testing (Brown 2004)[4].

The functions stated above describe the difference of the two different plans. As for the business plan, the focus is mainly on the steps on how to achieve the goals of a business. This involves the decision making. The business plan will give the company especially the employees’ goals and direction. The business plan will help the people in the company follow the business guideline. As stated in the same article, it is one of the best ways for you to communicate how well you understand your business and describe your vision of your business. Business plan is more on business personal guidelines. While Information Systems Plan is the set of methods in which the business may follow to achieve the progress with the proper usage of Information System. With such Information Systems Plan requires flexibility and responsiveness for the Information System is also changing fast. Information System is unstable. Also, as Information Systems Plan requires flexibility and responsiveness it means the plan must be in a short period of time.
Maybe this could also be the difference of the Business Plan and Information Systems Plan in which the Business Plan is a long term conformity. But the Information Systems Plan should also be aligned with the Business plan. Information Systems Plan is more on the managerial of the business transaction and identification of the factors that could affect its proper functionality. Information Systems Plan is more detailed compared to Business Plan. For the business Plan should be short enough for the company to grasp with whole understanding as Business plan is for general. But the difference should not suggest the opposition of the plan to one another. The planning of Information Systems must also be aligned to the Business Plan. Though they work for different approach in in deferent aspect of the company, they should be both planned very well. As the development and growth of the company is dependent on both Business Plan and Information Systems Plan.

[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_plan
[2] http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-9227505_ITM
[3] http://www.gaebler.com/why-are-business-plans-important.htm
[4] http://bai2006.atisr.org/CD/Papers/2006bai6391.doc.


What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?

Organizational frustration has been defined by Paul Spector in a very similar fashion, and refers to an interference with goal attainment or maintenance that is caused by some stimulus condition within the organization (Spector, 1978). It has been further narrowed to be defined as the interference with an individuals ability to carry out their day to day duties effectively (Keenan & Newton, 1984). The sources of organizational frustration put forth by Spector include the physical environment (both natural and man-made), the organizational structure and climate, the rules and procedures of the organization, and individuals both in and out of the organization. In addition, the concept of situational constraints (Peters & O'Connor, 1980) has been hypothesized to contribute to organizational frustration (Storms & Spector, 1987). Spector (1978) suggested four reactions to organizational frustration: 1) an emotional response of anger and increased physiological arousal, 2) trying alternative courses of action, 3) aggression, and 4) withdrawal. Of the behavioral reactions, only the second one – that of trying alternative courses of action to obtain the goal – is an adaptive response, while the other three are maladaptive. It is likely that the emotional reaction accompanies one of the three behavioral reactions, although the emotional reaction may be maladaptive by itself and become a further impediment to goal attainment. Clearly, should an individual become frustrated, it is in the best interests of the organization to have the individual respond in an adaptive way and attempt to find another solution to the problem in a clear decisive manner. Spector also put forth the idea that some mild forms of frustration may be seen as challenges rather than problems for some individuals, thus causing a motivational effect rather than a hindering effect and increasing the likelihood of an adaptive response rather than a maladaptive one. [5]

As defined above, there are many factors that affect frustrations. One of the most striking statements above about frustration is,” Organizational frustration …refers to an interference with goal attainment or maintainance”, which if I would understand this refers to dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction happens when something does not happen to what is expected. Dissatisfaction happens when goals does not happen to what has been planned. Simply, dissatisfaction happens when the attainment of the goal is interfered. Interference could be a form of anything that hinders the planned goal to be achieved. Dissatisfaction may come from Information Systems professionals or from users. First, as the users have different satisfaction, we may in advance conclude that the Information System that would cater their needs is imperfect. Though there was a planning, still, as for the users, the Information Systems that is available is limited. With such, it may rise up to dissatisfaction and the IS plan will be, partially, a failure. Words and emotions may burst out in this period of time, though it is natural, it may be mean for the IS Professional who made the plan. So as a IS professional, this setting is a total frustration. As an expert, this scenario is a total disappointment especially if professionalism is concerned. This failure of IS plan suggest that it needs to be studied all over again that maybe there is a need of revision of IS plans or a complete reconstruction.


Again, from the statement above, it implies the frustration on the maintenance. Maintenance is also delicate as it talks about time. Maintenance also suggests a commitment. When goals are defined during the planning of Information System then it is in subject to fulfillment. As goals are set to attain achievement, so as the plan be followed. Commitment means long time staying power. Commitment needs a heart of the people. Commitment needs the participation of the people involved and without such, the plan is for nothing. The plan is useless. The plan is a waste of time. It is like planning to quit. It is like planning to fail. It is like planning for no cause. It is like planning with out purpose. There must be focus and study on real situation after the implementation of the plan but this is mostly taken for granted. As time goes by, same as the other plans, Information Systems Plan are forgotten maybe not totally but in some cases, they are disregarded. As innate in humans, they are best in the beginning but not as in the end. The focus does not seem to last same as in the early period of the implementation. Though aware of the lapses brought by the Information Systems, these are being ignored. In the worst case, they may never use or follow the Information Systems Plan. These cases happen when users are unaware of the business plan or the business goals. And these cases happen when users are uninformed of the importance of the Information Systems Plan. Again, the Information Systems Plan is very important. Information Systems Plan allows the identification of factors that may the system either in Political, Economical, Sociological, Technology and Environmental. Also, the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunity and Threat of the organization is determined. The help brought about by the Information Systems Plan is a huge thing to consider and will be a total mistake if taken for granted. With such advantages and good things about the Information Systems Plan, following it is really a must. Following the Information Systems Plan is one way of doing the right way to progress. Pursuance of the Information Systems Plan is going near to what the company desired to be. Achieving the Information Systems Plan is achieving what is goal of the company. Achieving the Information Systems Plan is achieving what is best for the company.


Frustrations in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan are natural. These are natural cases. These problems are common. These problems are universal. These frustration rises even with your control for they are driven not only by IS factors but, also, much by the emotions and other psychological factors. As these two factors crisscross, then these frustrations occurs even worse. Though these problems are acceptable it must be resolved as soon as they begin to start up. Frustrations must be outsmarted. Frustrations must be overcome to achieve what is being planned.

[5]http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=A515691C579272C8EFA138B26BB46DF1?doi=10.1.1.77.1411&rep=rep1&type=pdf


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Fri Dec 05, 2008 10:51 am

1.What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?
(at least 1000 words)

Business is an association, organization that intended to give and provide service and goods to the consumers. As we all know businesses are the major contributor in the world economy. Especially those profitable businesses or what we called those privately own business. Their major objective or goal in business is to minimize cost and maximize profit. In order to achieve their goals and objectives is to create a wonderful and achievable business plan. These plans help to achieve their long term goals and even short term goals. Because of the exchanging world there are also lots of changes in the world of business. Like in the trend of fashion, the latest fashion person uses it. Like in the business what is the latest plan or what we called business plan or business strategy many company and businesses also uses it and implemented in their businesses and company.
What is business plan? Business plan as what I have comprehended in all the readings I have is a formal statement which includes the business goals. These business goals are the goals which are attainable and as what I have read that in the profitable businesses their major and most important goal is all about their financial goals. This goal is all about how they can get and maximize their profit in a short term period or long term period but most of business is to maximize their profit in a short period of time. and those non profit organization like those government own companies they may goal maximizing their profit but their major is the service Business plan must have first the description of the business – in order to know what really the business is. Second the marketing plan – this is also included in order to know how the business will introduce to the market. Third the financial management plan – this plan contains how the business or a company maximizes their profit and their business in the world economy. Fourth the management plan – this is also included in order how to manage their plan in the business. Business plan can be internally focused or externally focused. Internally focused business plan is their main goal is the development of the product, services, and an IT system. Externally focused business plan is all about the financial stakeholders. These financial stakeholders are the investors and customers. And this business plan is the tool in creating decision either to pursue or not to pursue the business plan.
In planning of information systems it usually begins in identifying the needs. In which the information system planning will be effective and the development of computer based system that will response to the needs of the company. Like the transaction processing where all transaction must be recorded in the system especially those important transactions. In planning information system it should be a strategic one. As what our professor discus about strategic planning it is an organization process of defining the strategy. It is usually have an analysis, and in order to come up with a good strategic plan it should be analyzed in SWOT analysis, PEST analysis and STEER analysis. SWOT analysis is called Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and most especially the Threats. As what mention in the previous sentence Strengths should be analyze in order for the company to know what their strengths are in terms in the market and in the consumer. PEST analysis refers to Political, Economic, Social, and Technological analysis. And lastly the STEER analysis this refers to the Socio-cultural, Technological, Economic, Ecological, and Regulatory factors.
The nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan is to aligned their plan with each other. The business plan and the strategic planning or information system planning must work hand in hand in order to achieve the objective and goals of the business for the benefit of the owners, and also the benefit of all the workers in the business.


2. What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?(at least 1000 words)


Frustration is an emotional side effect to a person that is encountering a certain problem regarding his goals in life. Lack of self confidence may lead to an internal frustration, and may prevent them from reaching their goals. There is also other kind of frustration, it is the external frustration. External frustration may affect a certain person physically. This is maybe happening if a certain person couldn’t achieve their goals.

There are lots of causes that may lead a certain person into frustration, and usually called as a frustrated one. Say for example, if someone has to do certain thing to be able for him to achieve his goals but he or she don’t have self confidence, or have some fears to do such thing, qualities that may prevent him from reaching his goals may cause an internal frustration to that person. Other is if a person is in a hurry for example, then something’s happen that will cause for him to be late, this person will have an external frustration and may push him to do things that are unusual and may hurt somebody physically. So I can say generally, frustration happens if someone encountered a conflict to his goals in life.

For me, the most frequently experienced causes of frustration are lack of self-confidence of the person who made the IS plan that he or she cannot reach the goals in the given period, or maybe he have finished his plan but he is not confident in applying his plan and may prevent him in continuing his next step. Other is if somebody is working an IS plan, and someone is trying to iterate him, he may not finish his work and may take him to frustration and maybe he can hurt that person. There are many things that can lead a person into frustration, that’s just some of them.


Reference:



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategic_plan
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_plan
http://www.scribd.com/doc/5066935/STRATEGIC-PLANNING-FOR-INFORMATION-SYSTEMS


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Thomas Tangian

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PostSubject: Assignment 2   Fri Dec 05, 2008 10:58 am

1.What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?
(at least 1000 words)

before I start let me discuss first the meaning of Business plan and IS plan in order for us to know what should be the nature of Business plan and IS plan.

A business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. - wikipedia

Business-planning methods help staff develop detailed plans at lower levels. Business-driven data modelling methods then help them to identify their information needs, based on those developed plans. Identified information is then provided from the Information Warehouse.

IS plan focuses on the transaction of the business what will be the new trend and other stuffs. Having this to plan is very useful in order to have a successful business. Their are some techniques can be use in IS planning which is the SWOT ( Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) and STEEP (Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental and Political) IS plan also is used in order to align with its organizational structure.

The nature of IS plan and Business plan is to assure that IS plan is align with its business plan the nature of realtionship is:

- Tactical business plans should provide input for Customer Management
- Financial Management should be the second model view for tactical modelling
- Tactical business plans provide input to Financial Management
- Portfolio Management should be the third model view for tactical modelling
- Tactical business plans provide input for Portfolio Management.

2. What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?(at least 1000 words)

Frustration are anywhere all of us experience this kind of dilemma in our day to day work IS professionals also experience this while working on the IS plan. As what ive learned from the lesson making a plan is very simple but the structure and the support behind it is very hard and complicated thing to do.

Consulatation is one of the frustrations that might occur in making the IS plan of course we must consult it in order for it to be accurate, getting the data needed, as we all know data are the source of all we have to analyze the situation through the given data that was gathered. Analyzing the data gathered, it is also one of the frustration that might occur since it is very tiresome to analyze the given data.
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Fri Dec 05, 2008 12:48 pm

What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?

To understand further the nature of the relationship between the business plan and information system plan lets just define each one of them to know their functions and to relate them
A business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals.

The business goals being attempted may be for-profit or non-profit. For-profit business plans typically focus on financial goals. Non-profit and government agency business plans tend to focus on service goals, although non-profits may also focus on maximizing profit. Business plans may also target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, tax-payer, or larger community. A business plan having changes in perception and branding as its primary goals is called a marketing plan.

Business plans may be internally or externally focused. Externally focused plans target goals that are important to external stakeholders, particularly financial stakeholders. They typically have detailed information about the organization or team attempting to reach the goals. With for-profit entities, external stakeholders include investors and customers. External stake-holders of non-profits include donors and the clients of the non-profit's services. For government agencies, external stakeholders include tax-payers, higher-level government agencies, and international lending bodies such as the IMF, the World Bank, various economic agencies of the UN, and development banks.

Internally focused business plans target intermediate goals required to reach the external goals. They may cover the development of a new product, a new service, a new IT system, a restructuring of finance, the refurbishing of a factory or a restructuring of the organization. An internal business plan is often developed in conjunction with a balanced scorecard or a list of critical success factors. This allows success of the plan to be measured using non-financial measures. Business plans that identify and target internal goals, but provide only general guidance on how they will be met are called strategic plans.
An information system plan (ISP) is also a formal statement but as of a set of the systems goal, in other words it is a plan that determines the sequence for implementing specific information systems. The goal of the strategy is to have more beneficiary features to the user or to a company.

Once deployed, the information systems department can implement the plan with confidence that they are doing the correct information systems project at the right time and in the right sequence.
The focus of the ISP is not one information system but the entire suite of information systems for the enterprise. Once developed, each identified information system is seen in context with all other information systems within the enterprise.

There are a lot of steps involved to consider in following or making an ISP. You should follow it in order to avoid further distractions and confusions.

If the pundits are to be believed, that is, that the right information at the right time is the competitive edge, then paying for an information systems plan that is accurate, repeatable, and reliable is a small price indeed! The price however, for traditionally accomplished ISPs is not small. A fair sized IBM’s Business, Business Systems Plan (BSP), or a James Martin’s System’s Data Planning (SDP) or Finkelstein’s Strategic Management Planning n (SMP) can take up to 40,000 staff hours ($4,000,000). Traditional ISPs are also inaccurate, can't afford to be repeated, and are out of date well before they are completed. Most ISPs, done the expensive and traditional way are never completed!

Now we already understand the meaning of each plan we can now tell the nature of relationship between BP and ISP. For a short recall business plan is composed of the company’s plan including its goal that should be for-profit or not-profit.

Today, enterprise database is deployed on distributed, heterogeneous hardware and systems software environments. The hardware platforms are both multiple-vendor and multi-tiered, with different architectures. In short, most businesses have embraced some form of downsizing, decentralization, and distributed processing. In order to attain such needs business plan should be merging to information system plan to develop a project that will affect the business survival. ISP will fetch the BP problems and conduct it. We can call it Business Information Systems the exact and complete details about the information needed about the systems and the business itself.

Business information systems change at a rate different from database objects or business missions. It is because of these different rates that each column is independent from each other. The goal is to encapsulate the internal designs of columns and to insulate them from the effects of design changes to other columns. Because of encapsulation, only when the business organizations change to the extent that they need additional or different business functions are business functions impacted. The most common changes are those that cause business functions to be either transferred from or into different business organizations. Those changes seldom ever impact business information systems. The only business organization changes that impact business information systems are those that typically occur after there has been a business mission change. Finally, database objects change only when missions change.

There are a lot of things that we will consider such as enterprises do not have models of information systems development that allow system designers to see the benefits of rearranging an information systems development schedule. In making an IS plan there are five major questions that cannot be answer:

1. What effect will there be on the overall schedule if an information system is purchased versus developed?
2. At what point does it pay to hire an abnormal quantity of contract staff to advance a schedule?
3. What is the long term benefit from 4GL versus 3GL?
4. Is it better to generate 3GL than to generate/use a 4GL?
5. What are the real costs of distributed software development over centralized development?

If these questions were transformed and applied to any other component of a business (e.g., accounting, manufacturing, distribution and marketing), and remained unanswered, that unit's manager would surely be fired!

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www.wikipedia.com
Whitemarsh - Information Systems Plan Book.pdf




What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?

I can’t find the exact answer to the questions but I guess I will have my own opinion regarding these major causes of frustration in Information System professionals and users while working on IS plan. The first thing that coming to my mind is that one of the problems is the user and the developer doesn’t communicate well or understand each other well. The main reason I guess is that usually the user doesn’t have any specific background regarding making an IS plan or worst the user don’t really know what and IS plan all about. If this will occur at most cases the developer will have to explain all in a sudden about the plan and they will end up arguing to each other because of the conflicts of ideas…mostly if the developer will be assigned or handle the things it will have bigger chance of being a bossy and to oblige violations and user will oppose for that manner…and it is frustrating to see that projects will have to be delayed because of this issue…so I will have to suggest that in making an IS plan with a user the user should some basic responsibilities. Not just taking up a project without any background…I suggest that user should know his responsibilities like Learn basic computer skills in order to understand the basic of IS plan. Learn standard techniques and procedures for using application, the user must know how to use a certain applications how to deal with it. The user should know the basic of security, how to deal with password protections. He should know how to back up files for certain emergency needs. Use computer resource according organization policies. Install authorized software with license or an out-source softwares. He should also know how to apply software patches and fixes. Actively participate in defining the requirements for new systems especially the one on the IS plan. Avoid reporting trivial problems because if not it will cause frustration to the developer.

According to an article that I’ve read regarding conflicts between IS professionals and user is the lack of priorities among the subjects of moral obligations. Obligation to one party may collide with obligation to another party. Protecting one’s employer’s interests may harm the public; protecting a colleague’s interests may contradict obligations to one’s employer; etc.

For example, consider this scenario. A programmer working for a consulting firm is involved in a large project for a client. The programmer comes to realize that some of the code she is developing will not be compatible with other systems employed by the client. When she brings the new facts to the employer, he demands that she follow his instructions. Her responsibility to the employer is to obey the instructions. However, her obligation to the client is to inform him about the incompatibility. The programmer is faced with an ethical dilemma to which there is no solution in any of the above ethical codes. The codes require that the member not divulge confidential information of the client. Now, let’s assume that in the course of the member’s work, the member received information of acts committed by the client, or the employer, that could harm the public. Should the member abide by the rule? Should he or she be “more ethical” toward the public, or toward the employer or client? These questions are some of the very confusing and frustrating to answer. A conflict should not always be resolved in favor of the same constituent. Each case should be carefully examined by the individual before making a decision, and the responsibility of judgment should rest with the individual. Still, a code of ethics should try to help make the judgment.
According also to the article that I have read there are lot of attitudes that can cause frustration between the relationships of IS professionals and users. According to their test they examined how IS-staffs and users feel to each other. The first one is the negative attitude of both parties regarding agreeing and disagreeing although it is an individual problems. Next is the feeling of being threatened. The findings suggested that the more common explanations of the reasons behind user-IS problems may need to be reinterpreted. Communication gaps, personality clashes, or misalignment of goals may be superficial manifestations of an underlying power of relationship rather than causes of the problem. If their unequal access to power is a common cause of user - IS problems, attempts to identify solutions will have little effect on the basic relationship unless the balance of power between the groups is somehow altered. I found out that the only if users were able to exert influence in the systems development process was participation effective in reducing conflict.

To avoid this conflicts that causes frustration between IS professionals and user, they should know their own capability before making the entire plan…they should question their own selves if they can handle it together. The IS-professionals and users should have formal relationships to each other; there should be policies that give one group the ability to command actions during the development of the plan. If the user don’t know or doesn’t understand about the system the IS professional has a responsibility to share and to give the scope of the system and to explain it further. Typically, practical solutions to this problem have focused on specific problems in specific contexts and have ignored the group relationship itself. IS professionals especially, have tended to look at good individual and project relations, and then wondered why user’s attitudes were still so negative. I suggest that if the problem of poor user - IS relationships to be adequately addressed , it must be treated as a problem between organizational groups, since this relationship affects all other contexts in which users and IS people interact. In this solution problems may easily be fix because they will meet the problem as a whole not individually.

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The User/Information Systems Relationship: A Study in Power and Attitudes.pdf
Ethical Standards for IS professionals.pdf

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CherryannMontejo

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Sat Dec 06, 2008 10:33 am

What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?

What is really the nature between these two types of planning? We often identify their relationship for they both relates to businesses. Business plan and information systems plan are both decision making tools. They are quite related because they have the same purpose in which they prepare the business through planning to set out a convincing way to secure financing, internal or external or for the start-up or expansion of a business scheme. It has a goal which is to deliver the most valuable business information at the earliest time possible in the most cost effective manner.

But before I can put in plain words the nature of the relationship between the business plans and IS plan, I must first define what does these both means. Business plan as we all know is a formal statement or set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan reaching these goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach these goals. The business goals being attempted may be for profit which typically focuses on financial goals or non-profit which tend to focus service goals or focuses on maximizing profit. Business plans may also target changes in perception and branding the customer, client, tax payer, or larger community. Business plan may be internally focused which target immediate goals required to reach the peripheral goals and external focused which targets goals that are important to external stakeholders, particularly external stakeholders. Having a formal, written business plan is so accepted as being crucial to success that there haven't been many studies or surveys to test this principle. If business plans were such a wonderful thing, there would be a significant and conclusive difference between businesses that have them and those that don't. Simply stated, business plan is a plan that sets out the future strategy and financial development of a business, usually covering a period of several years.

Information system plan on the other hand determines the sequence for implementing specific information systems. This kind of plan focuses on not only one information system but the entire suite of information systems for the enterprise. In lay mans term, information system plan is the end product of the information system project.

The nature relationship of the both plan is that without which there can be no exact view of the future plan of the company or shall we say it can give a hard time analyzing, solving or maybe in creating best plans for the company’s future.

Since business plan is one of the most important document of a company it is most frequently used by the managers and executives for internal planning. For a newly established business enterprise, the process of preparing a business plan serves a road map to the future by making entrepreneurs and the business owners itself think through their strategies. It can help in evaluating the basic business concepts; recognize the business limitations to avoid variety of mistakes. Thus, business plan serve as a blueprint or a guide in information systems planning.

The relationship between the two is that when the company is developing an information system plan which sometimes involves the whole organization, all members of the staff look at the overall organization to anticipate problems. This is where business plan completes the information system plan using the list of information systems needed, and many documents must be reviewed in which all the files are already been stated in the business plan. There are virtually no resources to help us set up what today’s business environment really demands. Since we are now living in a world where technologies are fast changing and the needs not just for good government services but also for better living would also continue to grow. But the sad part of it is that when the technology increases the need for new resources also increases but the availability of such resources decreases due to economic crisis. That is why effective use of information technology was viewed as a major approach that could assist government and companies in managing this change. It was also understood that well defined business planning and information system planning processes were critical success factor. That is why many companies particularly those large ones has developed a complete and inclusive technology planning procedure to boost technology project launch and approval. That is also the main reason why a continuous and ongoing planning system is really a must.

IS plan is an allied of business plan for when planning an information system, the staff under the planning team will review the strategic business plan for the company, including the statement of mission, goals, objectives and priorities that set business direction. They will ensure that the company information technology strategy is carried out and that the projects are appropriately targeted to support specific business strategies and ensures that the authorized projects are in line with business needs and direction. A common accepted theory is that for a business to survive and prosper it must be flexible and nimble. It is just like applying linear thinking to a non linear situation.

Writing a business plan without a planning system in place is a massive effort that is done very rarely. Many or mostly businesses write three to five year plan and update them annually. If a continual, ongoing process is in place, a written plan is not just important. Setting up an information system plan allows and sometimes forces the company to focus on strategy. But as we all see and as what I hear from those people living in a corporate world that a significant percentage of successful businesses don’t have written business plans. As professor Albert Shapero said, “Companies that plan do better than companies that don’t, but they never follow their plan.”

To sum it all up, information system plan is somehow connected to business plan in the development of the companies’ future success. Without which there will be possibilities that they can’t meet what the people needs for these two types of plan must work hand in hand. AJA…

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Sat Dec 06, 2008 10:37 am

(continuation… question 2)

There are two parts to this assignment and so I have already finished the first question. Let us now move on to the second question. The second question is, “What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?”

At first I thought this was going to be easy. I mean, I thought that there must be several causes of frustration in information systems professionals and users when they are working on an information systems plan. But then, as I read the question again, I realized that it was very specific. I actually floundered over the Internet looking for the answers to this question. And eventually, I ended up asking in Yahoo! Answers. Fortunately, some people gave me some answers but I do not really know if they are correct because, first of all, I do not know what answers are expected for this question. If I could put here my frustration of looking for the answers to this question, then I would definitely. But anyway, here's my try.

According to what I have found, one frustration that information systems professionals and users frequently experience when working on an IS plan is system failures. Of course, who would not be frustrated when you are in the middle of work then it is suddenly cut off because the system suddenly crashed or broke down? But before that, let me mention that there are two kinds of failures, one of which is system failures. From our previous subjects, I learned that system failures are known simply as soft crash. It does not affect the physical database of the information system and does not do damage to it. However, the second type of failure- media failure – is the one that becomes a very sensitive issue when it comes to information systems because it directly affects the physical database and does damage to part of or the whole database of the system. Media failure is also known as hard crash.

Let us go back to the frustration brought about by system failures. Imagine that you are in the middle of a transaction and it is very important that you accomplish it immediately when suddenly, the system bugs down. Your transaction is halted in mid-process and now you have to wait for the system to be fixed and to be usable again. In my point of view, for information system professionals, this may be an anticipated event because they are always exposed to such circumstances. Although it may still bring frustration because of the thought that the system you designed is unstable, they are open to the fact that any system could break down. However, the frustration this brings to IS professionals may be less compared to the frustration it brings to the users. I mean, most users are not that experienced and may or may not have any knowledge at all about information systems and therefore would not generally know how to react or what to do in situations like this. Most users think that if they are using a system, then it should always work out fine and they should not run into any problems because the people behind it have made sure to that. But we all know that this is not always the case.

For information system professionals, system failures can frustrate decision-making. No matter how much they prepare for or anticipate it, system failures always come in unexpected moments. Just when the professionals thought that the system was working fine and they can now proceed to the next stage of development, it gets interrupted and they have to start all over again. But, for every problem, there is a corresponding solution. From what I learned from my previous subjects, the impact caused by system failures can be lessened, if not totally eliminated, by setting up checkpoints at regular intervals. These checkpoints will save the current state of the system and so if a system failure does occur, not all transactions will have to be repeated.

Now, the second cause of frustration that I have found – user error. Like I said earlier, users may have little or no idea at all about the system they are working with. They usually have not the slightest inkling about the processes that go on behind the system. Most of the time also, users are irresponsible and rash and this usually results from not orienting them about the system that they are using. In this case, information system professionals, when designing an information system, cannot foresee all the errors that the users may do. The only thing that they can do to lessen the possibility of user error is to make the system as idiot-proof and as user-friendly as possible.

User error, in the point of view of the user, can cause inconsistencies in the information system that they are working with. But, usually, users do not know that they caused it. Most user errors are pretty simple, like inputting a wrong value. However, some user errors can also affect the entire system and this in turn causes frustration to both the information system professionals and the users. To the information system professionals, it causes frustration in that the error was completely unexpected and therefore they have to rework the system. This causes additional workload and costs them more time and effort. The users, on the other hand, are frustrated because the system may not live up to their expectations and their operation is halted.

I could not think of a sure-fire way to prevent user errors from occurring because the users of the system are varied and they may commit a wide range of mistakes. However, as a frontline prevention, the system should be designed to address most, if not all, possible and potential user-caused errors.

So, those are the two frustrations that I have found. I am not sure if they are the exact answers to the question, but I think they are not wrong either. They ARE causes of frustration for basically anyone who works with an information systems plan.

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CherryannMontejo

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Sat Dec 06, 2008 2:18 pm

continuation..gikan sa first post.

What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?


At first, I am still in the midst of finding my brain to help me shop for wonderful answers but unfortunately I cannot find one. I think I should rest, a kind of deep rest. Well, I know and I must know that I should keep on going.

As human we do have frustration or dissatisfaction, even vampires. When we fail, it keeps repeating because during the time of failure we also lose self esteem and self confidence. One of the best examples is that when we are having an exam and we study for all night but suddenly when the examination comes we don’t have any answers because the content of the exam are different form the one we have studied. Failure does not always have to be negative, it can also be a positive experienced if the procedures involved in the failure are analyzed and corrected. If one does something always right, there is no opportunity for learning. Failure gives opportunity for learning from previous mistake. When one does something right, only one confirms what is already known and how to do it. Learning takes place when a mistake is identified and it is corrected (Ackoff 1994). The idea is to take advantage of the failure and turn the negative feeling around by analyzing what went wrong and correcting it for future times.

But what if we are swimming on a broader sense? What if we are talking about those Information system professionals and users who are working on an Information system plan? As we all know, this kind of planning needs lots and series of research and serious study. Thus, if it is not successfully done, it will be one of the cause of frustrations of some IS professionals. It will be difficult for them to accept the fact that after all of their little feelings of distress and efforts their work will just be seen in the trash and not in the company.

But it is not actually the most frequently causes of frustrations but the minor one. Let us focus now on the frequent reactions of IS professionals while working on an IS plan. One of the things that make continuous efforts at the same time motivating and frustrating is what often seems to be a constant watercourse of problems. Strong skills in solving problem are essential to successful continuous improvement activities. Without which one will be doomed to solve the same problem repeatedly. Sometimes when life is playing with us, system failures can be the most frequent problem. It happens when a system does not meet its requirements. It is like a bullet in gun failing to designate its target.

Let us just put ourselves in the situation as an IT student having a laboratory exam in JAVA or any programming subjects. We are in the middle of making our program work and then all of a sudden (sometimes expected in our own Laboratory room) the computer shuts down. What will we feel? We are not just frustrated but we want to kill whoever person we saw, right? We know that we need to start over again but we are already running out of time. We always said “it is really the end of my IT life. Wala nako’y future ani. Huhuhuhu.” It is just like ending our life at the very exact moment because we already know what will be the outcome of the said exam.

The same scenario or problems also happens in IS professionals while working on an IS plan. Since they are always facing technologies they are always prone to system failures or even system breakdown.
In the business world, failures can be looked as opportunities to improve the process that contribute to business objectives and since information systems play a very important role in the daily operations of most businesses hence the development of such systems has become very important. It is known that project managers are guided throughout the development and successful completion of the projects. But still there are still many failures in IS projects.

One of the two common causes of frustrations is the project management failure itself. This is a common fact and even more complex in most companies. The common reasons behind these failures are poorly trained or inexperienced project managers who fails to set and manage expectations, poor leadership at any and all levels, failure to adequately identify, poor plans and planning processes or misalignment between the project plan and the business or other organization it serves and poor communication. Since the great deal of responsibility lies on project managers, they need to focus their interpersonal skills to get people accomplish their work. That is why we need to learn from our own mistake and the importance of learning about project failure so that we won’t repeat the same mistake in the future. Project manager is like a bridge that links key pieces together. And in order to reach pieces effectively he needs to have a balance of soft skills and technical knowledge.

But these sources of failures can be lessened. The most common practice is by having the project planned in totally different environment and trained those people with little or no specific knowledge in project planning. To top it all, the task of analysis and design must be carried out attentively. The team should be able to spot the weaknesses in a timely manner through the use of appropriate project management tools.
We need not to be affected with any kind of causes we will encounter that will just make us frustrated. As professional, we should act like one. Although during the time of making an IS plan it has still remain largely touched by crisis and failures. In the face of these problems, there has been always some distinguished technological or physical initiative.

Be strong and always be strong for it is the best approach for meeting the environmental challenges that lie ahead.


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PostSubject: What should be nature of the relationship between the business plan and information system plan?   Sat Dec 06, 2008 3:11 pm


What should be nature of the relationship between the business plan and information system plan?

A plan is formulated and constructed in order to make arrangements and preparations for the future. It takes time, effort, knowledge and thorough analysis to be able to create a good strategic plan. Constructing a plan is something done by many to manage and properly deal with a business. It is a practical and wise move to have a strategic plan. Plans are made for specific functions for a particular organization.

In associating the ideas of both business and information systems plan, there is a need of a foreword of the two different subjects.

A business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals.

The business goals being attempted may be for-profit or non-profit. For-profit business plans typically focus on financial goals. Non-profit and government agency business plans tend to focus on service goals, although non-profits may also focus on maximizing profit. Business plans may also target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, tax-payer, or larger community.

Business plans may be internally or externally focused. Externally focused plans target goals that are important to external stakeholders, particularly financial stakeholders. They typically have detailed information about the organization or team attempting to reach the goals. With for-profit entities, external stakeholders include investors and customers. External stake-holders of non-profits include donors and the clients of the non-profit's services.

Internally focused business plans target intermediate goals required to reach the external goals. They may cover the development of a new product, a new service, a new IT system, a restructuring of finance, the refurbishing of a factory or a restructuring of the organization. An internal business plan is often developed in conjunction with a balanced scorecard or a list of critical success factors. This allows success of the plan to be measured using non-financial measures. Business plans that identify and target internal goals, but provide only general guidance on how they will be met are called strategic plans.

Business plans are decision-making tools. There is no fixed content for a business plan. Rather the content and format of the business plan is determined by the goals and audience. A business plan should contain whatever information is needed to decide whether or not to pursue a goal. Projects and initiatives are initiated, approved, and monitored to ensure they meet the business needs.

In creating a business plan, various business related issues must be put into considerations on what should be the scheme or strategy on making profit, on how to maximize a business’ annual income, on how to counter or manage the problems that will arise, and on how to handle losses. These kinds of questions must be planned ahead of time. Software, hardware and peopleware are the significant factors that are needed in constructing an efficient and effective information system.

The demand of use of information system has increase to its peak at the current age. The information systems’ functionalities, capabilities and convenience it presents to its clients and users are the reasons that make it very in demand. It is how data and information in an organization is gathered and compacted in order to create an information system. It is managing and handling information and data within an organization in a simplified, easier and of less time consuming manner. An information system plan is a process for developing a strategy and plans for aligning information systems with the business strategies of an organization.

The need for Information System plans has not diminished. It has in fact increased due to the decentralization and distribution of planning and control for data and processing. It is imperative that there be centralized planning and control over the accomplishment of all these information systems so that resources can be conserved, and data and process semantics standardized.

The information systems plan determines the sequence for implementing specific information systems. The goal of the strategy is to deliver the most valuable business information at the earliest time possible in the most cost-effective manner. The focus of the ISP is not one information system but the entire suite of information systems for the enterprise. Once developed, each identified information system is seen in context with all other information systems within the enterprise.

In various and diverse ways, business plans and information system plans coincide.
Effective use of information technology was viewed as a major avenue that could assist managing and operating a business. It was also understood that well-defined business and information technology planning processes were critical success factors. There should be review of the plans to develop an understanding of the issues related to the effective and efficient use of information technology in the information system plan of a business.

A business information system which contains the details, information and data about the business are the important elements in formulating a business plan. It is a guide or a reference of making a business plan. The data it entails are of great value in considering a plan. Business Information Systems accomplish the computerized transformations of database objects from within the context of business functions. Different business functions may cause the execution of the same business information system.

For an organization to be able to create a good strategic business plan and information system plan, these must be constructed based on the interests of each other. The goals to be supported are part of the agency’s business strategy. The close link between the business needs and technology enhances the visibility of information technology initiatives. The impact of more effective planning is difficult to measure however, there is no doubt that business and information technology or IS planning has enabled significant progress in the operation of an organization.
Due to the nature of the need for technology strategies to support the business initiatives of the agency, management overview and direction of the information technology strategy to support projects is emphasized. Business management's key role in the development of the information technology strategy aids in ensuring that technology projects are more likely to be supported with the needed resources.

Technology advancement relies on an agency business strategy. The development of agency business strategies has accelerated due to this dependence.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_plan
http://www.tdan.com/view-articles/5262
http://www.wiscorp.com/EnterpriseDatabase_-_InformationSystemsPlanning_-_book_-_sam.pdf
http://state.tn.us/finance/oir/prd/ispprocess.pdf
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SherylCaguimbaga



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PostSubject: Assignment 2   Sun Dec 07, 2008 10:35 pm

For Question No. 1

As an individual with goals, I always remind myself to have a plan for the attainment of those goals. List the information, knowledge, skills, arts, crafts and sciences I need to master to achieve my goals in life. I already have my list since we were given a task on how we see ourselves ten years from now and the strategies to get there. I am thankful because I made my goals more specific, it helped me clarify my thinking, and did put a meaning to my existence. I am no longer the product of certain inescapable conditions and circumstances. Thanks to our instructor. Same as I did, organizations do also have their plans. Why do we need a plan and why do we have to plan? We need a plan and we need to plan because it will provide us with a success consciousness so that we would know where we are going and how to prepare ourselves for the journey.

For now, my purpose is to answer the question, “What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the information systems plan?” The starting point is to define each term and finding out their functions and significance before identifying the nature of the two plans.

After reading quite a few articles, I have now my response. So first, what is a business plan? A business plan contains statements of goals of the organization and means for the attainment of those goals and the reasons why they are believed attainable. It may also contain background information about the organization. However, as what has been stated in Wikipedia – there is no fixed content for a business plan. The content and format of a business plan would depend on the created goals and the audience to whom the plan will be presented and the context of presentation. A business plan should contain whatever information is needed to decide whether or not to pursue a goal. When do we say that our goals are attainable? When we define our goals, it should be within our reach, we should be realistic. As these words are coming out of my mind, I realized that the goals I have stated in our previous assignment were somewhat unattainable but I am not saying that I should eat my words.

Second, we need to define information systems plan. But before that, what is an information system? It is a system of persons, records of data and activities that process the data and information in an organization. It includes organization’s manual and automated processes. An information systems plan contains the goals and the means of improving the organization’s information system. What are the expected changes three or five years from now? What are the developments that the organization should have? People and information are the assets of business. How could information be processed without the people who are working on it? In addition, how could people work if there is no information to be processed? In creating an IS plan, every aspect of the organization should be well examined and thought-out. We should always look out for the desirable characteristics of an IS plan in order to have quality in our product. We may also include the shortcomings of the organization as well as the solutions to those problems and the proposals. These solutions should be for a long-term.

To share with you my gratitude, we were so lucky because we were given a task to make an IS plan for our chosen company in the previous semester. It was an achievement for me because we were able to finish it before the deadline. It might be a little bit stressful but it was informative and I had fun. That was a great experience. A sample of a proposal that was made by the group was the encouragement to have databases for the organization’s transactions. In the paper, we stated the reasons why the organization needs to have those databases and the advantages. How the organization would be benefited and other recommendations were also stated.

Going back to the real subject matter, after defining the two plans and identifying their functions, I should now state my idea on the nature of the relationship between the two. Business plan and information systems plan work together as a team. Without each, one could not work well. Knowing that business plan can be stated as the overall purpose of the organization while an IS plan works on the information system’s development of the organization, we can now say that business strategies are supported and stimulated by information strategies. Business goals and activities should be in accordance with the information systems that support them. Any improvement in the information systems, would it be hardware, software or peopleware is expected that it would cater the needs in achieving the organization’s goals.

In today’s competitive world, there is a need to attain a higher level of competence in order to be more marketable. The presence of machines in business can at times have a dehumanizing effect on people, but we have to face the reality. This is the reason why business firms keep on developing plans, innovating and make large investments in information technology and in information systems in order not to be left behind and to cater the best service to their customers. The level of intensity gave business firms a motivation to work a lot harder and have a healthy competition among the firms.

Business and IS plan should be well planned. Each of which should never be taken for granted because they both have a significant impact and both working for the success of the organization. If I were to use an idiomatic expression to describe the relationship of the two plans, I would say that they do have this “mutual understanding”. How could I say that? Of course, as what I have stated, they work in accordance with one another. If I were to pinpoint the general purpose of the two plans, that would be the success of the organization. I am not saying as an expert because I am not. My words are based on my perspective.

For Question No. 2

Working on information systems (IS) plan takes patience and perseverance. In order to have a good outcome, IS professionals should do profound analysis and must consider a variety of factors. Without a thorough understanding of the problem and organization’s need the IS plan is intended to solve, and without knowledge of the best practices for organizing the required data, the implemented IS plan becomes an unwieldy beast that requires constant attention. Developing an IS plan is never an easy task. That is why there are methods that IS professionals try to follow and standards they try to thrash out. IS plan should serve the company and the users the way it is expected. Learning from my experience from the previous semester, IS professionals’ task does not end with a scrutiny of the information systems. Indeed, they must evaluate the entire message in terms of coherence, the quality of hanging together in the IS plan. To achieve its purpose, statements must be organized appropriately. They must be ordered in a logical manner and should support the business plan of the organization so that the transition between each one contributes to the overall objective of the plan. After answering the first question, my next purpose is to respond to the next question, “What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?”

According to Freud, it is not simply the nature of the frustrating incident that determines how people will react to it. Rather, there is interplay between the situation and the psychological characteristics of individuals. The level of maturity of the individual also plays a part in the reactions to frustration (Barker, Dembo, & Lewin, 1965). With maturity, there is an increase in the variety of responses to a situation employed by individuals, in the control of the environment, and in their ability to employ problem-solving behavior and plan steps to obtain the goal. It would appear that learning, which is culturally determined, is a major factor in developing socially acceptable responses to frustration.

Frustration occurs when there is a condition, which interferes with or stops the realization of a goal. It makes us feel useless or worthless. Any interruption to our action or task can be very frustrating. Level of frustration experienced by an individual clearly can differ depending on the circumstances surrounding the frustrating experience and on the individuals themselves. There could be so many causes that lead an IS professional to frustration. Same thing happened to me. I made a list of my goals, when and how to attain those goals. I made my own schedule to help me budget my time and succeed in attaining the goals. But then the outcome was in contrast to what I had expected. I thought if I took those actions then all things would go right. This time, I should say that I am not a good planner but I will still keep on trying. I made a realization that the failure was not because I failed to plan and not because I planned to fail but there was something missing and I have to find out what it was. I learned from that experience and I should do the right thing next time.

Going back to the question, I need to identify the causes of frustrations not the frustrations itself. Similar to my experience, IS professionals fail to have a good plan. It might be because they are only focusing on one factor and others are taken for granted. Since we are dealing with information systems, that is why IS planning requires profound analysis and should consider all factors and all the necessary things that would contribute to the improvement. IS professionals may get tired of the unending revisions of IS plan, they should never ignore themselves be dominated by the feeling instead they should keep on working and let the perseverance power over.

My second idea on frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan is the lack of support from the management or from the personnel. Without the support, the IS professionals efforts would end up in frustration.

New technologies are emerging and old ones are outdated. Many major technologies can have a life expectancy of less than five years. These pressures have resulted in a drive for new approaches to planning and managing information technology (IT) services. That is why many of the organizations right now are having a greater investment in IT and information systems (IS). This is now the moment that organizations would try to hire IS professionals to have analysis and improvement on their information systems to help them compete in the market.

Design systems by IS professionals could also frustrate users in the workplace. Users find it hard to understand and use the implemented system. This frustration can affect workplace productivity, user mood, and users’ interactions with other co-workers. It also can affect their emotional state. These frustrating experiences also harm organizations by undermining productivity, lowering quality, and raising stress levels. Improving user interface design is one clear opportunity and it would benefit many users. To build better interfaces, more user involvement is needed in the interface design process. Designers should follow the interface guidelines that exist. User training will also help, especially if it addresses problem solving strategies that will help build self-efficacy. Even small changes in the interface can make a big impact on user satisfaction. IS professionals should also be better situated as the intermediary and be able to get better information between users and vendors when understanding frustration in the workplace.

Frustration is a natural feeling after all. Even non IS professionals experience being frustrated. It happens all the time when we fail to take the action and/or fail to attain our goals. Our response to it should be adaptive. Adaptive responses are constructive and are implemented to solve the problem that is blocking goal attainment. They may include preemptive efforts to avoid the problem, or once the problem is encountered, problem solving strategies to overcome or circumvent the problem.


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Adlaon,Kristine Mae

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Sun Dec 07, 2008 11:24 pm

1.What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?

As I try to think it thoroughly before, I find it so hard to look for an answer why do we (as IT student) have to be knowledgeable on businesses; areas like business strategies, business planning and etc. while in fact we are Information Technology students and we should have to study about the current trend of technology let us leave all those studies about businesses on any business related courses students. But it did came to a point when I had this chance to read an article or rather be said documentation of a systems analyst (I forgot to site the reference) saying his experiences on solving or gathering data on how to solve the system improvement of the company he is working. At that moment I then found the answer why we have to study the all businesses stuff and others.

As to answer with this assignment about citing the nature of the relationship between the business plan and Information Strategic Planning let me first expound the meaning of this two in order for me also to fully understand this two words. According to Wikipedia (the well known reference) a business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. The business goals being attempted may be for-profit or non-profit. For-profit business plans typically focus on financial goals. Non-profit and government agency business plans tend to focus on service goals, although non-profits may also focus on maximizing profit. Business plans may also target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, tax-payer, or larger community. A business plan having changes in perception and branding as its primary goals is called a marketing plan. Business plans may be internally or externally focused. Externally focused plans target goals that are important to external stakeholders, particularly financial stakeholders. They typically have detailed information about the organization or team attempting to reach the goals. With for-profit entities, external stakeholders include investors and customers. External stake-holders of non-profits include donors and the clients of the non-profit's services. For government agencies, external stakeholders include tax-payers, higher-level government agencies, and international lending bodies such as the IMF, the World Bank, various economic agencies of the UN, and development banks. Internally focused business plans target intermediate goals required to reach the external goals. They may cover the development of a new product, a new service, a new IT system, a restructuring of finance, the refurbishing of a factory or a restructuring of the organization. An internal business plan is often developed in conjunction with a balanced scorecard or a list of critical success factors. This allows success of the plan to be measured using non-financial measures. Business plans that identify and target internal goals, but provide only general guidance on how they will be met are called strategic plans. Operational plans describe the goals of an internal organization, working group or department. Project plans, sometimes known as project frameworks, describe the goals of a particular project. They may also address the project's place within the organization's larger strategic goals.

Having been defined thoroughly above, I could say that business plans are summarized or can overly be said as some statements, documented statements stating the business goals to attain some reasons, either for profit or non profit.
Unleashing the true potential of information systems is one of the most daunting challenges facing senior managers in the Information Age. Now, as to define Information strategic planning; according to (http://www.strategy-business.com/press/16635507/13243) it is important from the outset to distinguish between strategic information systems planning and strategic planning for information systems. The former relates to the selection of systems that will give an enterprise a strategic business advantage over its competitors, such as the US Airlines computer-based Sabre reservation system of the 1960s. The latter relates to the long-range planning of all IT systems and services which the organization will utilize, both for business and administrative applications.

The Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA1) of the UK Treasury denote the following concerns of IT strategic planning:
• understanding the aims and objectives of the business,
• establishing the information requirements of the business
• outlining the systems to provide the information, and determining the role of technology in supporting the information systems,
• agreeing policies and plans to develop and implement the information systems,
• determining the role and use of resources to achieve the information systems required, and
• Managing, reviewing and evolving the strategy.

Fundamental to the strategic planning process are the following:

• An inventory of existing services. These should include all IT services, including computer-based information systems, computer networks and other telecommunications services.
• A detailed cost model of each service and a summary model for IT services as a whole. Costs of existing systems, including capital, operating, personnel and maintenance are captured. Any trends should also be captured and monitored. These requirements provide a baseline for all planning and decision-making activities, and are inherent in most, if not all, IT strategic planning methodologies.

For large corporations, strategy at the corporate level is more concerned with managing a portfolio of businesses. For example, corporate level strategy involves decisions about which business units to grow, resource allocation among the business units, taking advantage of synergies among the business units, and mergers and acquisitions. In the process outlined here, "company" or "firm" will be used to denote a single-business firm or a single business unit of a diversified firm.

Having been defined above, I could say that Information Strategic planning concerns is the thorough understanding about the business plan. Yes, before establishing an enterprise of course the concern individuals has their business plan already; about their goals, aims and over- all plan about the enterprise while strategic planning is the thorough study about this plan, on how it will be implemented efficiently to attain those goals.



References:
http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_plan#K-12
http:// www.strategy-business.com/press/16635507/13243
http:// www.netmba.com/strategy/process/







2. What are the two most frequently experienced causes
of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?



Frustration is a common feeling. For me when I say I’m frustrated I may have something in mind that I want to do or attain but then for some reasons at all I failed to reach that
something. For example, like this assignment, I’m so frustrated that I did not pass this on time, the deadline was December 5 and yet it’s December 7 already (gosh! I really hate this…) anyways, according to a dictionary frustration is
the feeling of failing.

Frustration is often defined in different ways, making the subject itself somewhat ambiguous. Frustration was first introduced by Sigmund Freud as a concept both external and internal in nature and related to the concept of goal attainment. Frustration occurs when there is an inhibiting condition which interferes with or stops the realization of a goal. All action has a purpose or goal whether explicit or implicit, and any interruption to the completion of an action or task can cause frustration. For Freud, frustration included both external barriers to goal attainment and internal obstacles
blocking satisfaction.

According to Britt the concept of frustration as a duality is continued in the analysis of
frustration as both cause and effect as a cause, frustration is an external event, acting as a stimulus to an individual and eliciting an emotional reaction. In this case, the emotional response is the effect, and the individual is aroused by this external cause and a response is often directed towards the environment.

Dollard et al. define frustration as “an interference with the occurrence of an instigated goal-response at its proper time in the behavior sequence” (Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer,
& Sears, 1939). Because an instigated goal response entails only that the goal be anticipated, frustration is due to the expectation and anticipation of a goal, not the actual attainment of the goal. If the goal is unfulfilled, frustration is experienced because satisfaction was not achieved and hopes were suddenly thwarted. The thwarting or hindrance -- terms often used synonymously with frustration -- is not limited to the actual activity in progress, but relates to what the individual is expecting (Mowrer, 1938a).

As to answer this assignment, about the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan, I would like to first
identify who are the professionals and the users. According to Mr. Webster, a professional is the one who makes his living by his art, as distinguished from an amateur. If we are to relate it with Information Systems professionals, these may be the people who manages the IS of the company or the enterprise while the users are the employees of the enterprise or the company who uses the System.

The level of frustration experienced by an individual clearly can differ depending on the
circumstances surrounding the frustrating experience and on the individuals themselves. One major factor in goal formation and achievement is goal commitment, which refers to the determination to try for and persist in the
achievement of a goal (Campion & Lord, 1982).


Research on goal theory indicates that goal commitment has a strong relationship to performance and is related to both the importance of the task or outcome and the belief
that the goal can be accomplished (Locke & Latham, 2002).


And so as has been stated above the level of frustration of an individual will surely depend on its surrounding environment causing the frustration. With regards to this I could say that being an IS professional the main cause of frustration is the inability to attain the goals of the company in making strategic plans, second is the organizational pressure or what we call the organizational frustration in which one individual is being pressured to do something accompanied with time deadline to finish a project will surely cause frustration.



References:


Webster Dictionary.

Freud, S.
(1921). Types of Onset and Neurosis. In J. Strachey (Ed.), The Standard
Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 12, pp. 227-230). London:Hogarth Press.

Dollard, J., Doob, L. W., Miller, N. E., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration
and Aggression. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Campion, M., & Lord, R. (1982). A Control Systems Conceptualization of the Goal-Setting and Changing Process. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30, 265-287.

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation: A
35-Year Odyssey.Unpublished manuscript.
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mariechelle alcoriza

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PostSubject: assignment number 2   Mon Dec 08, 2008 12:06 pm


Good Day everyone!
question number one:


Before I start discussing all about the business plan, the information system plan and the connection between the two, let me dissect all the words involved (business plan, IS plan) for us to understand (later on) their relationship.

Let me define first what is planning, according to Mr. Webster, planning is defined as a scheme for achieving an objective: it is a method of doing something that is worked out usually in some detail before it is begun and that may be written down in some form or simply retained in memory. For me, planning is somewhat like preparation on something, setting up or scheduling what has to be done. And planning is what we do everyday, right? Our beloved mothers plan on what food she will be preparing for us. In addition, we, as students, schedule our activities during the day, during the week even in month. Even our school, they have this outline of scheduled activities for the whole semester.

With the definition of the word plan or planning (as what I have stated it above), in my own opinion, a business plan, is a paper that specifies the goals of the company, as well as the plans on how to compete with other companies (or what we call the strategies of the company). Basically, it presents detailed information concerning on where a company is going and how it will get there. The Wikipedia defined business plan as a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. Also many experts in business considered that a business plan is critical in making or breaking a business. As Sir Randy said we should not plan to fail, so businessmen should have a carefully considered plan, because this plan can serve as an absolute road map to success for the owner and the employees. Business plan can help all of those people who are involved to stay on track while striving to achieve the goals of the company. Moreover, the business plan may be assessed and modified when needed, this would allow those working in the business to keep the strategies that are working for them or maybe improve those strategies and if possible, eliminate those strategies that don't work for them, and change goals as the business go forward.
So let’s go with the information system plan, as we all know information system is the collaboration between the people ware, software and the hardware that produces information or knowledge in an organization and these 3 elements are organized to aid in reaching the goals of the organization and be able to help the company solve their business problems. This would include the company’s manual or automated procedures. Based on my reading, information systems plan is a process for developing a strategy and plans for aligning information systems with the business strategies of an organization (1).

references
(1) http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_information_system_plan

as what I have remembered, last November 24, our instructor told us that an information systems plan usually ranges from one year planning to three year planning horizon, more than that will be awful in a sense that there might be a possibility that the application of the information technology would not fit in to the organization’s needs at that particular time. For me, in the information system planning the IS planning staffs will perform the following actions in preparation to the actual IS planning process:
~ They should review of the strategic business plan for the organization, including the vision, mission, goals, objectives, strategies, and priorities that set business direction.

~ They should evaluate the existing technological setting within the organization, including assessment of the principal hardware requirements and specifications, application software, and connectivity. The acronym SWOT now comes into place. The staffs should do the evaluation of the STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES and THREATS in terms of the technology in the organization. The primary purpose of the SWOT is that it will allow the staff to assess the company in fairly manner because it does not only focus on the strong side but also on the weak side of the company. It will also help the staff forecast the threats and opportunities. This would also help the company on how to react under different situation or in other words, the organization can prepare for the possible consequences that the will be encountering.

~ After the assessment, the staffs should develop an Information Technology Strategy based upon the study of the present situation and the goals of the business to be achieved. This strategy identifies the organization’s short term and long term goals associated to the managing and sharing of the information and information technology in support of the organization’s business strategic plan. The strategy also tackles about the organization’s technology weaknesses and needs or addressing the problem to the higher management (probably for funding.hehe).

If I am asked what is the relationship between the two plans stated above, I can say that information system plan will help the business plan reach they desired goals. It is clearly stated above that information systems plan should be aligned with the business plans. In other words they compliment each other. These two plans are partners for life. These two should work hand in hand with each other for the development and success of the organization.

To end this, planning is the key word, it may somehow relate in our real life scenario.
“if we fail to prepare then we are prepared to fail”. Whatever plans we have in mind right now, let’s bear in mind, plans will always be plans. Let’s put our plans into actions, because plans without actions are useless. With the right plans, right decisions, right actions, the right vehicle, with the support of our beloved family and friends and coupled with the love and blessings from up above, we can achieve what we want to achieve!

for question number two:

When we talk of frustration, we usually deal with it everyday, a concrete example on this, is we are in a hurry (probably late in school or in a meeting) then we are indulged in a heavy traffic caused us to be frustrated and lead to changes of our mood (e.g. angry towards the driver), and as a result, we end up not attending the meeting or be absent in the class because we are already 15 minutes late! Even I had also experienced it (I may say we all experience this!) For me, when we say frustration, I defined it as an obstacle, a rock that hinders me in what I want to do. In simple terms, I am not satisfied with what I have done. Or a feeling of disappointment caused by great expectations towards a person, an event or even a thing.

Frustration was first introduced by Sigmund Freud as a concept both external and internal in nature and related to the concept of goal attainment. Frustration occurs when there is an inhibiting condition which interferes with or stops the realization of a goal. All action has a purpose or goal whether explicit or implicit, and any interruption to the completion of an action or task can cause frustration. For Freud, frustration included both external barriers to goal attainment and internal obstacles blocking satisfaction (Freud, 1921).
This concept of frustration as a duality is continued in the analysis of frustration as both cause and effect (Britt & Janus, 1940). As a cause, frustration is an external event, acting as a stimulus to an individual and eliciting an emotional reaction. In this case, the emotional response is the effect, and the individual is aroused by this external cause and a response is often directed towards the environment.

Dollard et al. define frustration as “an interference with the occurrence of an instigated goal-response at its proper time in the behavior sequence” (Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer, & Sears, 1939). Because an instigated goal response entails only that the goal be anticipated, frustration is due to the expectation and anticipation of a goal, not the actual attainment of the goal (Berkowitz, 1978). If the goal is unfulfilled, frustration is experienced because satisfaction was not achieved and hopes were suddenly thwarted. The thwarting or hindrance -- terms often used synonymously with frustration -- is not limited to the actual activity in progress, but relates to what the individual is expecting (Mowrer, 1938a).

As what I have said above, all of us experience frustration, maybe in school or in work. Same situation goes with the IS Professionals. For me, one of the most frequent causes of frustration of these people is when the higher management lacks commitment or IS professionals does not acquire support from the higher management. This is so tough for those who are working on the IS plan, as what I have stated above, the IS planning team needs to gather the data, do some evaluation on the technology and business strategies of the company. Without the higher management’s support, the planning team cannot have accurate data, or proper resources that they need. The team will be frustrated and would result to poor job performance or ineffectively carrying out their day to day duties and it leads to poor IS planning or project output (poor analysis, poor design, etc.). This simple problem would result to another problem which is on the user of the Information System (probably when implementing the IS plan).


As the result of the problem stated above, the users of the IS will greatly be affected. As an effect, based on my reading frustration with technology can lead to wasted time, changed mood, and affected interaction with colleagues. When users in a workplace are frustrated with their computers, it can lead to lower levels of job satisfaction (Murrell & Sprinkle, 1993). In some cases, user frustration with technology can even lead to increased blood volume pressure and muscle tension (Riseberg, Klein, Fernandez, & Picard, 1998). Whew! It can cause high blood pressure!


When we talking about frustration, the primary cause of this is the word “EXPECTATIONS”. And for me, expectations really sucks! So goes with the IS professionals and the users of the IS. The IS planning team expects a lot (i.e. support) from the top management, when the expectations of the IS planning team is not reached, these will lead to poor project output (as what I have stated above). Then the users of the IS expects (again!) a lot from the IS planning team (knowing that users do not have any idea on what the IS planning team is doing to produce the system) that they can use the system with ease and solve their computing problems but then again the users of the system are disappointed with the outcome. Then gradually, the business would disappear like a bubble (mawawala na parang bula). Then there goes another problem the unemployment. Then again another problem will take into place, hunger of the family of those employees who were unemployed. It seems that the problem branches out, every wrong move; there is a consequence that waits.

To close this, I may say that no man is an island. No one can live without the other. I am speaking not just as a student but also as a concerned individual. We should help one another in reaching our goals. From planning (whether it may be in professional level or personal level) down to putting our goals into actions. Frustrations and consequences are part of our lives, we should not give in to whatever problems we have knowing that every problem has its own purpose and has its own solution. Hardships in life are given to us to test us how far we can stand them. NEVER GIVE UP. They are the shadows which will us to become stronger than what we used to be. As what Epictetus said,”It is not the problems that bothering you. It is the way you look at them.” In the same manner, Chuck Swindoll declared:”Life is 10% what happens to me and 90% how I react on it.”
Let’s be positive!

God Bless Everyone!
Ciao! lol!

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maryrossinidiamante

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PostSubject: What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?   Tue Dec 09, 2008 1:51 pm

Information has emerged as an agent of integration and the enabler of new competitiveness for today’s enterprise in the global marketplace. An integration of planning with development and management through enterprise information resources - which capture and characterize the enterprise will shorten the response cycle and even allow for economic evaluation of information system investment.

In determining whether your current information systems meet your business requirements, you need to create an IS vision and develop a strategic plan for implementing new or improved systems to support your organization’s strategic direction. But in every task we aim to accomplish, it is inevitable that problems arise and we may encounter feelings of depression while working on something that is very vast value of. And it is not unusual for us to consider that developing an information system is really an immense load of work to be done. And that it will take great effort, time and skills to be able to generate one.

Most probably we are all acquainted with the word frustration. It is commonly associated with disappointment or any negative feedback on any situations. It is comparable to anger and disappointment. It is an emotional response to circumstances where one is obstructed from arriving at a personal goal. The more important the goal, the greater the frustration.

Frustration is often defined in different ways, making the subject itself somewhat ambiguous. Frustration was first introduced by Sigmund Freud as a concept both external and internal in nature and related to the concept of goal attainment. Frustration occurs when there is an inhibiting condition which interferes with or stops the realization of a goal. All action has a purpose or goal whether explicit or implicit, and any interruption to the completion of an action or task can cause frustration. For Freud, frustration included both external barriers to goal attainment and internal obstacles blocking satisfaction (Freud, 1921).

This concept of frustration as a duality is continued in the analysis of frustration as both cause and effect (Britt & Janus, 1940). As a cause, frustration is an external event, acting as a stimulus to an individual and eliciting an emotional reaction. In this case, the emotional response is the effect, and the individual is aroused by this external cause and a response is often directed towards the environment.

Frustration is an interference with the occurrence of an instigated goal-response at its proper time in the behavior sequence (Dollard et al). Because an instigated goal response entails only that the goal be anticipated, frustration is due to the expectation and anticipation of a plan. If the goal is unfulfilled, frustration is experienced because satisfaction was not achieved and hopes were suddenly thwarted.

I think one of the causes of frustrations between professionals and users in working in an Information System (IS) plan would that projects and tasks are carried out in the wrong order or there would be unnecessary reworking of some various fractions of the plan. This would cause delayed on meeting the desired deadline on the IS plan. Prolonged working on it would also mean lengthened burden on being stuck in finishing the project.

With regard to business, frequently there to too much focus on IT, so that the organization loses sight of business requirements. For example, one organization was trying to make a business case for workflow software. They were having trouble defining the benefits for the business case and an analysis revealed there was no business process design to create any benefits. The project leader thought that the possible general benefits of the software, like speeding up business processes, were automatic as a result of computerizing a process. Whereas in reality other factors, like reluctance to delegate, can mean just automating systems will not solve the problem.

You need to realize that information systems strategy is not a one-off but has to be changed continually to adapt to a changing environment and to capitalize on better ideas. So the highest level approach is based on the life cycle of creation, then operation, modification and finally disposal. But there should priority on spending time on modifying it. As all these processes can be seen as acting on the strategy, the strategy has to be designed to optimize all these processes. The view of IS strategy is a general plan of action to produce a general information systems design, which meets business objectives, aligns with the general business strategy and encompasses IT.

Resources are targeted more effectively as it is clearer what will make the most contribution to the business strategy. Resources are can also used more efficiently by seeing areas of commonality and the best order to carry out tasks from an efficiency point of view. Balancing effectiveness with efficiency enables you to get your priorities right and approve projects with more confidence and on exact time.

The second cause of frustration would be somehow related to first I have stated. Losing track on what is aimed to be achieved would cause unnecessary reworking on the project and this would also cause time-pressure on the deadline that needs to be met. I believe these two issues are interrelated to each other which are both derivation of frustration in working in an IS plan.

To be able to develop a good, strategized information system and to counter some frustration, I have here the following guidelines: Define business objectives correctly so that the IS strategy aligns with the business strategy. Scope the project properly. It is easy to miss out of the way offices or some products, services or business functions. Don't miss interaction between functions as do some approaches to strategy. Do projects in the right order to avoid or minimize re-working. If re-working cannot be avoided, make sure this is in the plan. The same applies to tasks, for example, don't try to design the database before you know what you want out of it, otherwise you will go round in circles re-working. Time is an important element in making a successful project. It should be well-managed and well-utilized to avoid extended deadline and that it would not cause hassle and difficulty to both the developer or the professional and its client or the user.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frustration
http://www.lilleyinfosys.co.uk/is-strategy.html
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=A515691C579272C8EFA138B26BB46DF1?doi=10.1.1.77.1411&rep=rep1&type=pdf


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Karren D. Adarna

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PostSubject: assignment 2   Wed Dec 10, 2008 5:58 pm

hi sir..it's my first time in your subject to submit an assignment LATE..
i just want to apologize...I suffered a high fever for one week..I even missed the class..well, I just felt obliged to explain..hehe

1. What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?

In a world of commerce and industry, business plan and Information System plan exists. Before, IS plan was not yet introduced but as the world changes and as technology finds its way into business, Information System plan now plays a very critical part in business. For a long time relationship between information system functions and corporate strategy was not of much interest to Top Management of firms. Information Systems were thought to be synonymous with corporate data processing and treated as some back-room operation in support of day-to-day mundane tasks. In the 80’s and 90’s, however, there has been a growing realization of the need to make information systems of strategic importance to an organization. This time, business plan and IS plan must go hand in hand for the success of the company. What is a business plan? A business plan is a document that summarizes the operational and financial objectives of a business and contains the detailed plans and budgets showing how the objectives are to be realized. It is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals.

It is very necessary for a company to have a planning, a business planning at that, so that they may able to foresee what the company will be or what will happen to the company after a year or so. Because the business plan contains detailed financial projections, forecasts about business's performance, and a marketing plan, it's an incredibly useful tool for business planning. Enterprises make large investments to implement all kinds of resource planning, human resource, accounting, customer, logistics, manufacturing, and other information systems. The objective of many of our business change projects is information system implementation that converts existing business operations and data. When you ask anyone involved what they are doing they answer “implementing a new system” or what is their objective they answer “to get the system into operation”. Management consultants have methodologies to implement information systems. The information system implementation objective prevents the needed benefit from business change.

On the other hand, Information System plan is the process of deciding the objectives of computing for an organization and then identifying the applications that the organization should computerize. Information Systems Planning is a continuous planning activity that ensures Information and Communication Technology implementation in an organization is aligned with business strategies, improves organizational process effectiveness, creates business opportunities and contributes to organizational competitiveness ISP has become increasingly important as information systems have begun to play a more critical role in implementing business strategies. It is said that a quality ISP must exhibit five distinct characteristics before it is useful. It should be timely, useable, maintainable, quality and reproducible. Information System plan helps the company to implement its business plan or business strategies.

Therefore, what should be the nature of relationship between the two? The answer is just simple. First, the business plan must be considered. It should be made first and the IS plan will just follow. The company must set some goals, some objectives and ways to reach that goals and objective that they have. It should identify some steps to attain those goals, some strategies and plan. That is why it’s called business plan. After doing so, information system plan will enter. It will help to make the business plan easier to attain. The information systems plan project determines the sequence for implementing specific information systems. The goal of the strategy is to deliver the most valuable business information at the earliest time possible in the most cost-effective manner. The end product of the information systems project is an information systems plan. Once deployed, the information systems department can implement the plan with confidence that they are doing the correct information systems project at the right time and in the right sequence. The focus of the ISP is not one information system but the entire suite of information systems for the enterprise. Once developed, each identified information system is seen in context with all other information systems within the enterprise.

However, information system plan must be aligned to business plan and must not go in separate way. In making IS plan, it should be made sure that its purpose is to help the business plan and go with the business plan. Problems usually arises whenever the IS plan is not anymore in the line with the business plan.

In summary, information system plan is necessary to achieve the business plan. Additionally, it must be timely, useable, maintainable, able to be iterated into a quality product, and reproducible. IT organizations, once they have completed their initial set of databases and business information systems will find themselves transformed from a project to a release environment. The continuous flow environment then becomes the only viable alternative for moving the enterprise forward. It is precisely because of the release environment that enterprise-wide information systems plans that can be created, evolved, and maintained are essential. Business Information Systems accomplish the computerized transformations of database objects from within the context of business functions. Different business functions may cause the execution of the same business information system. If, in any of the business functions that employ a business information system, the database object value state transformation is not accomplished, the entire set of database object transformations are rolled back so that the database object returns to its prior state.

2. What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on IS plan?

In every thing that we do, we always encounter frustrations and disappointments. It is part of what we are doing and without it, life would never become meaningful. It is sometimes designed to measure our patience and to test our character. And finally, at the end of the matter, it will add joy to our victory realizing the fact that we are able to overcome the hindrances and frustrations that we meet along our way towards our goal.

There also exist frustrations and disappointments while making and working Information System plan. As a person, we have to always consider this because this is possible in everything that we do. Usually, the fundamental problem and cause of this frustration of IS professionals while working Information System plan is the inability to plan and manage business change. This is because the business itself is not organized or managed. If the plan is not designed well even from the start, you can never expect a wonderful output out of that plan. This is the reason why sometimes IS professionals failed and experienced frustrations. They lacked proper planning or even the business plan itself is not properly made or organized. The output results of value produced by the business that provide the benefits of change and the capital solutions that incur the costs to produce the results are not defined and managed as sets. Without an organized business there is limited understanding of the actual business and difficulty in analyzing information system implementation related to the business. That is why business plan is important in making information system plan.

Another reason, even if the business is well-planned and designed, but if the ISP itself lacks everything that it supposed to have, in other words, it is weak and is not designed well, then there will be frustrations after implementing it and failed to meet the standard or what the user is expecting. A quality ISP must exhibit five distinct characteristics before it is useful and so it will not doomed to failure and frustration. First, it should be timely. An ISP that is created long after it is needed is useless. In almost all cases, it makes no sense to take longer to plan work than to perform the work planned. A well designed information system plan must also be useable. It must be so for all the projects as well as for each project. The ISP should exist in sections that once adopted can be parceled out to project managers and immediately started.

The ISP must also be maintainable. New business opportunities, new computers, business mergers, etc. all affect the ISP. The ISP must support quick changes to the estimates; technologies employed, and possibly even to the fundamental project sequences. Once these changes are accomplished, the new ISP should be just a few computer program executions away. Another is, while the ISP must be a quality product, no ISP is ever perfect on the first try. As the ISP is executed, the metrics employed to derive the individual project estimates become refined as a consequence of new hardware technologies, code generators, techniques, or faster working staff. As these changes occur, their effects should be installable into the data that supports ISP computation. In short, the ISP is a living document. It should be updated with every technology event, and certainly. And lastly, a well designed information system plan must be reproducible. That is, when its development activities are performed by any other staff, the ISP produced should essentially be the same. The ISP should not significantly vary by staff assigned. These five characteristics of an Information System plan are very essential; it must be timely, useable, maintainable, able to be iterated into a quality product, and reproducible. If one of these is missing, the information system plan has the possibility to fail and thus IS professionals may encounter frustrations and disappointments.

It is inevitable, as what I’ve said, failures, frustrations and disappointments are part of everyone’s journey; whether you are a student, a professional, an ordinary laborer or a simple citizen. We are all subject to these. However, it is still wiser to prepare ourselves and do as much as we can to not totally eliminate but at least lessen the possibility of encountering such frustrations. The idea is not do something so it will not happen so often. For IS professionals, they must identify the reasons and causes of these frustrations and do something to minimize it. Again, one cause of these could be the lack of proper plan of the business and second is the lack of plan of the IS plan itself


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jaymar melecio

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PostSubject: ass2   Thu Dec 11, 2008 11:17 am

1.What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?

Before anything else let us define first business plan and Information System (IS) plan and analyze their relationship and if there are major difference among the two. There is a lot definition of business plan some of them defined as a document that summarizes the operational and financial objectives of a business and contains the detailed plans and budgets showing how the objectives are to be realized. And according to the wikipedia business plans typically cover five major content areas: Background information, A marketing plan, An operational plan, A financial plan, A discussion of the decision making criteria that should be used to approve the plan. Information System (IS) planning

The business goals being attempted may be for-profit or non-profit. For-profit business plans typically focus on financial goals. Non-profit and government agency business plans tend to focus on service goals, although non-profits may also focus on maximizing profit. Business plans may also target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, tax-payer, or larger community. A business plan having changes in perception and branding as its primary goals is called a marketing plan.
Business plans may be internally or externally focused. Externally focused plans target goals that are important to external stakeholders, particularly financial stakeholders. They typically have detailed information about the organization or team attempting to reach the goals. With for-profit entities, external stakeholders include investors and customers. External stake-holders of non-profits include donors and the clients of the non-profit's services. For government agencies, external stakeholders include tax-payers, higher-level government agencies, and international lending bodies such as the IMF, the World Bank, various economic agencies of the UN, and development banks.
Internally focused business plans target intermediate goals required to reach the external goals. They may cover the development of a new product, a new service, a new IT system, a restructuring of finance, the refurbishing of a factory or a restructuring of the organization. An internal business plan is often developed in conjunction with a balanced scorecard or a list of critical success factors. This allows success of the plan to be measured using non-financial measures. Business plans that identify and target internal goals, but provide only general guidance on how they will be met are called strategic plans. Let us now go to the information system planning.
The following steps are involved in the development of the ISP: Create the mission model, Develop a high-level data model, Create the resource life cycles (RLC) and their nodes, Allocate precedence vectors among RLC nodes, Allocate existing information systems and databases to the RLC nodes, Allocate standard work break down structures (WBS) to each RLC node, Load resources into each WBS node, Schedule the RLC nodes through a project management package, Produce and review of the ISP, Execute and adjust the ISP through time.
Planning for information systems begins with the identification of needs. In order to be effective, development of any type of computer-based system should be a response to need--whether at the transaction processing level or at the more complex information and support systems levels. Such planning for information systems is much like strategic planning in management. Objectives, priorities, and authorization for information systems projects need to be formalized. The systems development plan should identify specific projects slated for the future, priorities for each project and for resources, general procedures, and constraints for each application area. The plan must be specific enough to enable understanding of each application and to know
where it stands in the order of development. Also the plan should be flexible so that priorities can be adjusted if necessary. King (King, 1995) in his recent article has argued that a strategic capability architecture - a flexible and continuously improving infrastructure of organizational capabilities – is the primary basis for a company's sustainable competitive advantage. He has emphasized the need
for continuously updating and improving the strategic capabilities architecture.
SISP is the analysis of a corporation’s information and processes using business information models together with the evaluation of risk, current needs and requirements. The same article emphasizes the need to note that SISP is a management function and not a technical one. This is consistent with the earlier distinction between the older data processing views and the modern strategic importance view of Information Systems. SISP thus is used to identify the best targets for purchasing and installing new management information systems and help an organization maximize the return on its information technology investment. A portfolio of computer-based applications is identified that will assist an organization in executing its business plans and realize its business goals. There is a growing realization that the application of information technology (IT) to a firm’s strategic activities has been one of the most common and effective ways to improve business performance.

From the given definition and discussion above I can now conclude that business plan, through the incorporation of Strategic planning of Information System the organization can get its targeted goal. The organization should plan strategically about their future undertakings so that they can gain a competitive advantage among the business firms or shall I say are on the top of the business. According to the discussion the first thing to consider to make the IS effective is identifying the needs of the organization. There should be huge development in their current IS so that it will ride to the present technology nowadays. The relationship of the business plan and the Strategic Information System Plan are the business plan focuses only in attaining the goals of the business while the Strategic Information System Plan is mainly focuses in developing the Information System and its management through planning strategically.


http://sbinfocanada.about.com/cs/startup/g/businessplan.htm
http://www.wiscorp.com/EnterpriseDatabase_-_InformationSystemsPlanning_-_book_-_sam.pdfhttp://viu.eng.rpi.edu/publications/strpaper.pdf

2. What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?(at least 1000 words)


Rapid change of information Technology nowadays is fast as easy. Creating and developing of IS are at the company’s stake whether to put their organization be on the top on the business cycle or let the company goes 6 feet on the ground. There is a lot of factor we must consider in making a plan as what above stated it should start with the identification of the needs of the organization.

Upon making the Information System (IS) we cannot deny the fact that certain problems may arise from making up to the implementing of the IS, this problem may lead to frustration. Frustration is a feeling of dissatisfaction that results when your expectations are not realized, the act of hindering or obstructing or impeding, a feeling of annoyance at being hindered or criticized.

I think the first frequently experienced cause of frustration in IS professionals is that the worker is hesitate to adapt the current IS in their organization they only stick to their older existing IS not knowing that they should ride on todays new advancement. Secondly, the maker itself they may have small budget in making the information sytem that can sustain or make a better information sytem.
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ymrebmomville

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PostSubject: ans assgn# 2   Sat Dec 13, 2008 9:47 am

1.What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?

Before knowing the nature of relation of business plan and the IS plan, let us first define them in order to have a broad knowledge about what they are. To start with, I discuss business plan. According to my sources will be stated below, a business plan contains title page, executive summary, description of the business, description of the product service, market analysis, competitive analysis, and operations management. So here’s the definition of business plan first before going to its components.

A business plan is a written document describing the nature of the business, the sales and marketing strategy, and the financial background, and containing a projected profit and loss statement
A business plan is also a road map that provides directions so a business can plan its future and helps it avoid bumps in the road. The time you spend making your business plan thorough and accurate, and keeping it up-to-date, is an investment that pays big dividends in the long term.
Your business plan should conform to generally accepted guidelines regarding form and content. Each section should include specific elements and address relevant questions that the people who read your plan will most likely ask. Generally, a business plan has the following components.

Title Page and Contents
A business plan should be presented in a binder with a cover listing the name of the business, the name(s) of the principal(s), address, phone number, e-mail and website addresses, and the date. You don't have to spend a lot of money on a fancy binder or cover. Your readers want a plan that looks professional, is easy to read and is well-put-together.
• Executive Summary
The executive summary, or statement of purpose, succinctly encapsulates your reason for writing the business plan. It tells the reader what you want and why, right up front. The
Description of the Business The business description usually begins with a short explanation of the industry. When describing the industry, discuss what's going on now as well as the outlook for the future. Do the necessary research so you can provide information on all the various markets within the industry, including references to new products or developments that could benefit or hinder your business. Base your observations on reliable data and be sure to footnote and cite your sources of information when necessary. Remember that bankers and investors want to know hard facts--they won't risk money on assumptions or conjecture.
Description of the Product or Service The business description can be a few paragraphs to a few pages in length, depending on the complexity of your plan. If your plan isn't too complicated, keep your business description short, describing the industry in one paragraph, the product in another, and the business and its success factors in two or three more paragraphs.
Market Analysis
A thorough market analysis will help you define your prospects as well as help you establish pricing, distribution, and promotional strategies that will allow your company to be successful vis-à-vis your competition, both in the short and long term.
• Cost-plus pricing is used mainly by manufacturers to assure that all costs, both fixed and variable, are covered and the desired profit percentage is attained.

• Demand pricing is used by companies that sell their products through a variety of sources at differing prices based on demand.

• Competitive pricing is used by companies that are entering a market where there's already an established price and it's difficult to differentiate one product from another.

• Markup pricing is used mainly by retailers and is calculated by adding your desired profit to the cost of the product.
Competitive Analysis
The purpose of the competitive analysis is to determine:
• the strengths and weaknesses of the competitors within your market.
• strategies that will provide you with a distinct advantage.
• barriers that can be developed to prevent competition from entering your market.
• any weaknesses that can be exploited in the product development cycle.
.
Operations and Management
The operations and management component of your plan is designed to describe how the business functions on a continuing basis. The operations plan highlights the logistics of the organization, such as the responsibilities of the management team, the tasks assigned to each division within the company, and capital and expense requirements related to the operations of the business.


Every year, $300-700 million dollar corporations spend about 5% of their gross income on information systems and their supports. That's from about $15,000,000 to $35,000,000! A significant part of those funds support enterprise databases, a philosophy of database system applications that enable corporations to research the past, control the present, and plan for the future.
Even though an information system costs from $1,000,000 to $10,000,000, and even through most chief information officers (CIOs) can specify exactly how much money is being spent for hardware, software, and staff, CIOs cannot however state with any degree of certainty why one system is being done this year versus next, why it is being done ahead of another, or finally, why it is being done at all.
Many enterprises do not have model-based information systems development environments that allow system designers to see the benefits of rearranging an information systems development schedule. Consequently, the questions that cannot be answered include:
• What effect will there be on the overall schedule if an information system is purchased versus developed?
• At what point does it pay to hire an abnormal quantity of contract staff to advance a schedule?
• What is the long term benefit from 4GL versus 3GL?
• Is it better to generate 3GL than to generate/use a 4GL?

If these questions were transformed and applied to any other component of a business (e.g., accounting, manufacturing, distribution and marketing), and remained unanswered, that unit's manager would surely be fired!
We not only need answers to these questions NOW!, we also need them quickly, cost effectively, and in a form that they can be modeled and changed in response to unfolding realities. This paper provides a brief review of a successful 10-step strategy that answers these questions.
Too many half-billion dollar organizations have only a vague notion of the names and interactions of the existing and under development information systems. Whenever they need to know, a meeting is held among the critical few, an inventory is taken, interactions confirmed, and accomplishment schedules are updated.
This ad hoc information systems plan was possible only because all design and development was centralized, the only computer was a main-frame, and the past was acceptable prologue because budgets were ever increasing, schedules always slipping, and information was not yet part of the corporation's critical edge.
Well, today is different, really different! Budgets are decreasing, and slipped schedules are being cited as preventing business alternatives. Confounding the computing environment are different operating systems, DBMSs, development tools, telecommunications (LAN, WAN, Intra-, Inter-, and Extra-net), and distributed hard- and software.
The above statement explains the relationship between business plan and the IS plan. It stated clearly the nature of their relationship.

2. What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?(at least 1000 words)

Computers have many beneficial impacts, but unfortunately, frustration is a universal experience for computer users. The annoyances of losing work when a crash occurs, struggling to understand an error message or spending too much time to clear spam and viruses have become symbolic of the struggles associated with modern technologies. Computers can be the cause of many problems, and usually at the worst time possible.


Some problems stem from the users’ lack of knowledge, poor training, or unwillingness to read instructions or take tutorials. Often frustration results from flaws in the computer hardware, software, networking, troubling interactions among components supplied by diverse manufacturers, or the result of malicious actions by other users.
A number of preliminary research steps are necessary to guide developers who are working on the goal of making computer usage less frustrating for users. A first step is to gain a better understanding of what frustrates users of computers. Then taxonomies of frustrating experiences can be developed and means to measure their severity and frequency can be identified. These three steps should lead to solutions with enough supporting evidence so that requests for improvements will be well received by all parties involved.


Computers can be valuable tools, and networked resources via the Internet can be beneficial to many different populations and communities. Unfortunately, when people are unable to reach their task goals due to frustrating experiences, this can hinder the effectiveness of technology. This research summary provides information about the user frustration research that has been performed at the University of Maryland and Towson University. Causes of user frustration are discussed in this research summary, along with the surprising finding that nearly one-third to one-half of the time spent in front of the computer is wasted due to frustrating experiences. Furthermore, when interfaces are planned to be deceptive and confusing, this can lead to increased frustration. Implications for designers and users are discussed.


User frustration with information and computing technology is a pervasive and persistent problem. When computers crash, network congestion causes delays, and poor user interfaces trigger confusion there are dramatic consequences for individuals, organizations, and society. These frustrations, not only cause personal dissatisfaction and loss of self-efficacy, but may disrupt workplaces, slow learning, and reduce participation in local and national communities. Our exploratory study of 107 student computer users and 50 workplace computer users shows high levels of frustration and loss of 1/3–1/2 of time spent. This paper reports on the incident and individual factors that cause of frustration, and how they raise frustration severity. It examines the frustration impacts on the daily interactions of the users. The time lost and time to fix problem, and importance of task, strongly correlate with frustration levels for both student and workplace users. Differences between students and workplace users are discussed in the paper, as are implications for researchers.
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abellana, maria teresa g.

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PostSubject: part 1..   Fri Dec 26, 2008 4:23 pm

Like any other activity, planning is so much vital to achieve the desirable results being forecasted. Normally, any business or organization has their own corresponding strategies on how to make their own company expand and at the same time attain their goals being set. Any business involves various risks—it is natural and inevitable. That is why planning is essential to make an organization survive and still compete in the industry knowing that they are involved in the survival of the fittest manner. To plan, primarily means to anticipate things, of course for the future. As being mentioned above, planning is important in any business. Competition is always present and will never be blotted out when we deal or talk with it. To illustrate, let us consider the scenario of the top and leading telephone and mobile companies. Unending promotions and offers are always seen and advertised through the aid of media. They would continually formulate and plan plans that could attract and gain the attention of the market. No company would allow their business to stay stagnant and just be a spectator in the industry. Evidently, they are to go beyond their adversaries. This is the concept of survival of the fittest, I should say. In our modernized world, many organizations are adapting to some changes and are benefiting the power of technology. To belong in the competitive level, some chose to become accustomed with the trend—the so called Information System plan.
Since I am mentioning about planning and have cited the words business plan and information System plan, its better to be on familiar terms with them to further understand their relationship.
Scores of definition are being held with the word business plan. As I have read from Wikipedia, these are the significant points about business plan. Business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. The business goals being attempted may be for-profit or non-profit. For-profit business plans typically focus on financial goals. Non-profit and government agency business plans tend to focus on service goals, although non-profits may also focus on maximizing profit.
Business plans may be internally or externally focused. Externally focused plans target goals that are important to external stakeholders, particularly financial stakeholders. They typically have detailed information about the organization or team attempting to reach the goals. With for-profit entities, external stakeholders include investors and customers.[1] External stake-holders of non-profits include donors and the clients of the non-profit's services.[2] For government agencies, external stakeholders include tax-payers, higher-level government agencies, and international lending bodies.
Internally focused business plans target intermediate goals required to reach the external goals. They may cover the development of a new product, a new service, a new IT system, a restructuring of finance, the refurbishing of a factory or a restructuring of the organization. An internal business plan is often developed in conjunction with a balanced scorecard or a list of critical success factors. This allows success of the plan to be measured using non-financial measures. Business plans that identify and target internal goals, but provide only general guidance on how they will be met are called strategic plans.
Operational plans describe the goals of an internal organization, working group or department.[3] Project plans, sometimes known as project frameworks, describe the goals of a particular project. They may also address the project's place within the organization's larger strategic goals.

Business plans are decision-making tools. There is no fixed content for a business plan. Rather the content and format of the business plan is determined by the goals and audience. A business plan should contain whatever information is needed to decide whether or not to pursue a goal.
On the other hand, an Information System is composed of the hardware, software and people ware. These components work collectively to generate results or information inside an organization. Additionally, they are very important in achieving the business goals of the organization. Information Systems plan is a process for developing a strategy and plans for aligning information systems with the business strategies of an organization. Meaning, information systems plan is the means in which the three components—hardware, people ware and software is utilized to contribute for the success of a certain company.
So what then should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the Information System plan?
Knowing that business and Information System plans are associated with one another, it should be that both are in line with one another. I can say that a business could still survive (depending on the present factors) with its business plan even if there is no Information System plan. But the life of that particular business is at a high risk. Information System plan supports the business plan then. The business plan and Information System plan should work hand in hand. It should be that the business plan jives with its corresponding Information System planning. Both are the chief factors for a business’ effectiveness and success. As defined, Strategic Information System Planning is the analysis of a corporation’s information and processes using business information models together with the evaluation of risk, current needs and requirements. The result is an action plan showing the desired course of events necessary to align information use and needs with the strategic direction of the company (Battaglia, 1991).

Having our Management Information Systems II class lately, as I have remembered there are relevant acronyms given by our instructor. These are the S.W.O.T and P.E.S.T.E (it’s quite not that good to say). Anyways, what do these acronyms stand for? In a Strategic Information Systems Plan, it is divided in two categories: internal and external. S.W.O.T stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats; it belongs to the internal type. The other one, P.E.S.T.E stands for Political, Economical, Sociological, Technological and Environmental. These are the factors that should be well thought-out prior in formulating the business plan and IS plan. In general, business plan and IS plan should be parallel to one
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Ronic Winmar Concepcion

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Tue Jan 13, 2009 5:40 am

1.What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?
(at least 1000 words)


Characteristics of a Quality ISP
A quality ISP must exhibit five distinct characteristics before it is useful. These five are presented in the table that follows.
Timely

The ISP must be timely. An ISP that is created long after it is needed is useless. In almost all cases, it makes no sense to take longer to plan work than to perform the work planned.

Useable

The ISP must be useable. It must be so for all the projects as well as for each project. The ISP should exist in sections that once adopted can be parceled out to project managers and immediately started.

Maintainable

The ISP must be maintainable. New business opportunities, new computers, business mergers, etc. all affect the ISP. The ISP must support quick changes to the estimates, technologies employed, and possibly even to the fundamental project sequences. Once these changes are accomplished, the new ISP should be just a few computer program executions away.

Quality

While the ISP must be a quality product, no ISP is ever perfect on the first try. As the ISP is executed, the metrics employed to derive the individual project estimates become refined as a consequence of new hardware technologies, code generators, techniques, or faster working staff. As these changes occur, their effects should be installable into the data that supports ISP computation. In short, the ISP is a living document. It should be updated with every technology event, and certainly no less often than quarterly.

Reproducible

The ISP must be reproducible. That is, when its development activities are performed by any other staff, the ISP produced should essentially be the same. The ISP should not significantly vary by staff assigned.

Whenever a proposal for the development of an ISP is created it must be assessed against these five characteristics. If any fail or not addressed in an optimum way, the entire set of funds for the development of an ISP is risked.
The ISP Steps
The information systems plan project determines the sequence for implementing specific information systems. The goal of the strategy is to deliver the most valuable business information at the earliest time possible in the most cost-effective manner.
The end product of the information systems project is an information systems plan (ISP). Once deployed, the information systems department can implement the plan with confidence that they are doing the correct information systems project at the right time and in the right sequence. The focus of the ISP is not one information system but the entire suite of information systems for the enterprise. Once developed, each identified information system is seen in context with all other information systems within the enterprise.
Information Systems Plan Development Steps
Create the mission model
The mission model, generally shorter than 30 pages presents end-result characterizations of the essential raison d=etre of the enterprise. Missions are strategic, long range, and a-political because they are stripped of the Awho@ and the Ahow.@
Develop a high-level data model
The high-level data model is an Entity Relationship diagram created to meet the data needs of the mission descriptions. No attributes or keys are created.
Create the resource life cycles (RLC) and their nodes
Resources are drawn from both the mission descriptions and the high level data model. Resources and their life cycles are the names, descriptions and life cycles of the critical assets of the enterprise, which, when exercised achieve one or more aspect of the missions. Each enterprise resource Alives@ through its resource life cycle.
Allocate precedence vectors among RLC nodes
Tied together into a enablement network, the resulting resource life cycle network forms a framework of enterprise=s assets that represent an order and set of inter-resource relationships. The enterprise Alives@ through its resource life cycle network.
Allocate existing information systems and databases to the RLC nodes
The resource life cycle network presents a Alattice-work@onto which the Aas is@ business information systems and databases can be Aattached.@ See for example, the meta model in Figure 2. The Ato-be@ databases and information systems are similarly
. The Ato-be@ databases and information systems are similarly attached. ADifference projects@ between the Aas-is@ and the Ato-be@ are then formulated. Achievement of all the difference projects is the achievement of the Information Systems Plan.
Allocate standard work break down structures (WBS) to each RLC node
Detailed planning of the Adifference projects@ entails allocating the appropriate canned work breakdown structures and metrics. Employing WBS and metrics from a comprehensive methodology supports project management standardization, repeatability, and self-learning.
Load resources into each WBS node
Once the resources are determined, these are loaded into the project management meta entities of the meta data repository, that is, metrics, project, work plan and deliverables. The meta entities are those inferred by Figure 2.
Schedule the RLC nodes through a project management package facilities
The entire suite of projects is then scheduled on an enterprise-wide basis. The PERT chart used by project management is the APERT@ chart represented by the Resource Life Cycle enablement network.
Produce and review of the ISP
The scheduled result is predicable: Too long, too costly, and too ambitious. At that point, the real work starts: paring down the suite of projects to a realistic set within time and budget. Because of the meta data environment (see Figure 1), the integrated project management meta data (see Figure 2), and because all projects are configured against fundamental business-rationale based designs, the results of the inevitable trade-offs can be set against business basics. Although the process is painful, the results can be justified and rationalized.
Execute and adjust the ISP through time
As the ISP is set into execution, technology changes occur that affect resource loadings. In this case, only steps 6-9 need to be repeated. As work progresses, the underlying meta data built or used in steps 1-5 will also change. Because a quality ISP is Aautomated@ the recasting of the ISP should only take a week or less.



Collectively, the first nine steps take about 5000 staff hours, or about $500,000. Compared to an IS budget $15-35 million, that's only about 3.0% to 1.0%.
If the pundits are to be believed, that is, that the right information at the right time is the competitive edge, then paying for an information systems plan that is accurate, repeatable, and reliable is a small price indeed.

A business plan is a document that summarizes the operational and financial objectives of a business and contains the detailed plans and budgets showing how the objectives are to be realized.
Because the business plan contains detailed financial projections, forecasts about your business's performance, and a marketing plan, it's an incredibly useful tool for business planning.
A business plan is also a road map that provides directions so a business can plan its future and helps it avoid bumps in the road. The time you spend making your business plan thorough and accurate, and keeping it up-to-date, is an investment that pays big dividends in the long term.
Your business plan should conform to generally accepted guidelines regarding form and content. Each section should include specific elements and address relevant questions that the people who read your plan will most likely ask. Generally, a business plan has the following components:
Title Page and Contents
A business plan should be presented in a binder with a cover listing the name of the business, the name(s) of the principal(s), address, phone number, e-mail and website addresses, and the date. You don't have to spend a lot of money on a fancy binder or cover. Your readers want a plan that looks professional, is easy to read and is well-put-together.
Include the same information on the title page. If you have a logo, you can use it, too. A table of contents follows the executive summary or statement of purpose, so that readers can quickly find the information or financial data they need.


2. What are the two most frequently experienced causes of frustration in IS professionals and users while working on an IS plan?(at least 1000 words)


Use of technology often has unpleasant side effects, which may include strong, negative emotional states that arise during interaction with computers. Frustration, confusion, anger, anxiety and similar emotional states can affect not only the interaction itself, but also productivity, learning, social relationships, and overall well-being. This paper suggests a new solution to this problem: designing human–computer interaction systems to actively support users in their ability to manage and recover from negative emotional states. An interactive affect–support agent was designed and built to test the proposed solution in a situation where users were feeling frustration.

The agent, which used only text and buttons in a graphical user interface for its interaction, demonstrated components of active listening, empathy, and sympathy in an effort to support users in their ability to recover from frustration. The agent's effectiveness was evaluated against two control conditions, which were also text-based interactions: (1) users’ emotions were ignored, and (2) users were able to report problems and ‘vent’ their feelings and concerns to the computer. Behavioral results showed that users chose to continue to interact with the system that had caused their frustration significantly longer after interacting with the affect–support agent, in comparison with the two controls.

These results support the prediction that the computer can undo some of the negative feelings it causes by helping a user manage his or her emotional state. Some problems stem from the users’ lack of knowledge, poor training, or unwillingness to read instructions or take tutorials. Often frustration results from flaws in the computer hardware, software, networking, troubling interactions among components supplied by diverse manufacturers, or the result of malicious actions by other users.

A number of preliminary research steps are necessary to guide developers who are working on the goal of making computer usage less frustrating for users. A first step is to gain a better understanding of what frustrates users of computers. Then taxonomies of frustrating experiences can be developed and means to measure their severity and frequency can be identified. These three steps should lead to solutions with enough supporting evidence so that requests for improvements will be well received by all parties involved. Computers can be valuable tools, and networked resources via the Internet can be beneficial to many different populations and communities.


Many e-commerce and e-business firms today are turning to systems planning and systems analysis. Such analysis provides a broader view of organization catering to system development. System development activity aids in producing information systems solutions and provides a platform for resolving organizational problems using information systems. The paper puts light on objectives, management challenges faced by an organization, and road map indicating direction of systems development.
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davemar tabanyag



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Fri Jan 23, 2009 9:35 am

[quote="rsgamboa"]1.What should be the nature of the relationship between the business plan and the IS plan?
(at least 1000 words)

Although at first glance we might consider these two aspects of a business having of different nature as well as of minimal relationship. they may actually have a close relationship regarding the contents and nature of a business plan suggests, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_plan so now lets try to find these relationships.

As what was summarized in the wiki link a business plan contains a statement of the set of goals and reasons why a business is believed attainable or in short a feasibility study of the strengths and weaknesses of a business. And it may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. Although it may not be explicitly stated IS is involved here when we talk about the background information of the organization or the team attempting to reach the business goals.

So what can we say then? is an IS Plan a part of a Business Plan?

Information Systems is a major key aspect for a business to be competitive these days as what i have perceived. Now with this in mind i could say that it is true that for a business plan to be proved feasible it can use an IS plan as profit maximization. Although this is not always true for small scale(micro) and non-IT business. It was also said that a business plan may be of two types which are For-profit or Non-profit and that a For-profit type is concerned on financial goals and that a non-profit type is more concerned on service goals. so we may categorize this in general as the Business Industry and the Government which are more service oriented than that of the Business Industries Profit oriented approach. The Government practically uses its information systems to provide the quality of service needed by the public for its offices to become effective in every aspects of its operations. Therefore IS in this case plays a crucial role. Now going back to the business industries where the orientation shifts to profit maximization IS still plays a crucial role regarding the flow of distribution of the wealth of the company regardless if it is tangible or intangible. Therefore as a conclusion I could say that the relation of an IS plan and the Business plan should go hand in hand from the beginning of the business. Bearing in mind that a business having a business plan that does not take the factor of an IS plan will most likely to fail nowadays knowing that information is a major asset in today’s companies the Business Plan would be ineffective and so as an IS plan not being a part of a Business Plan will most likely be ineffective knowing that it will miss certain factors of the business that are only found on a business plan.
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abellana, maria teresa g.

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PostSubject: part 2..   Sun Jan 25, 2009 12:25 am

Problems will naturally arise in an organization due to some factors. Apparently, frustrations will come and blow out the minds of the people working in the organization specially between the IS professionals and the users. Like any other activity, planning is so much vital to achieve the desirable results being forecasted. Normally, any business or organization has their own corresponding strategies on how to make their own company expand and at the same time attain their goals being set. Any business involves various risks—it is natural and inevitable. That is why planning is essential to make an organization survive and still compete in the industry knowing that they are involved in the survival of the fittest manner.

As defined, Strategic Information System Planning is the analysis of a corporation’s information and processes using business information models together with the evaluation of risk, current needs and requirements. The result is an action plan showing the desired course of events necessary to align information use and needs with the strategic direction of the company (Battaglia, 1991).

Lederer and Sethi (1988) surveyed 80 organizations to examine the problems faced by information systems managers when they attempt to implement one of three alignment methodologies, BSP, SSP or IE. Barlow (1990) has also examined the SISP methodologies and
has provided some insights into their structure and implementation problems. Bergeron et al. (1991)
examined the issue of application of two ‘impact’ methodologies, Porter’s Value Chain Analysis and
Wiseman’s Strategic Thrust Methodology. These studies and the insights developed by us form the basis of this section which provides a critique of the existing methodologies. The detailed list of problems in implementing SISP methodologies has been classified by Lederer and Sethi as resource, planning process, or output related problem associated with the three methodologies.

According to this survey, the most severe problem identified by IS managers is the failure to secure top management commitment for carrying out the final plan.
Normally, IS managers will somehow feel and experience the burden brought by the various problems, ongoing changes and the inconsistencies of the IS plan of a particular organization. This would really make them feel frustrated. Due to these factors, the plan would not be hundred percent sure that what is thought to be the final plan will be pursued. As the day goes by, changes will come, developments and greater and brighter ideas will arise. This means that the top management which is accountable and responsible for carrying out the goals and plans of the organization will expect to have not-so-good feedbacks from their subordinates. For sure, this would affect the people behind the IS planning and as well as the users. Integrity is diminished because of the inconsistencies and changes.



The second most severe problem identified is the requirement for substantial further analysis after the completion of the IS plan.
Analysis is a critical part of having the planning. After the Information System plan is established, supplementary and advanced study is needed to facilitate and manage the plan; study that would integrate the best propositions being set for the expansion and growth of the organization. Since many ideas are coming from the planning team, the salient things and the detailed fine points necessary to be dealt with will bring confusion to the IS managers—another frustration that needs to be answered.

Both these problems are related to the output of the planning process. Besides these top two, six of the next top eight problems are related to the resources required to carry out the strategic information systems planning (success of the plan depends on the team leader, difficulty in finding the team leader meeting the criteria specified in the study, methodology lacking computer support, planning exercise taking long time, etc.). Among the top ten problems encountered while
implementing one of these methodologies (or, even while implementing an in-house methodology), three are common: difficulty in obtaining top management commitment for implementing the outputs, the requirement of substantial further analysis and difficulty in finding a good team leader.
The results of this survey suggest that IS planners are not particularly satisfied with their methodologies. If the objective of the SISP exercise is to align IS objectives with business goals, then detailed, lengthy and complex SISP may be of limited value. Where the objective is to use IT to impact a business strategy, these methodologies may not generate useful ideas for that purpose.
Bergeron et al. (1990), however, point out that the value chain analysis and Wiseman’s strategic
methodologies do help in achieving that purpose. Barlow (1990) suggests that the large number of
methodologies that have been developed can often ‘add confusion rather than clarity to the (IS)
planning process.’
Salient points which emerge from this and the preceding sections are:
• Although strategic information systems planning is a major concern, most organizations find
it difficult to undertake it. Besides their lack of experience with SISP, absence of a comprehensive, structured, easy to use methodology may also be a main reason for it. It is possible that the advances in Information Technology and their applicability in organizations has outpaced all formal methodologies evolved in the 70s and 80s or evolved in 90s as marginally modified versions of the earlier methodologies, which were largely dominated by IBM’s Business
Systems Planning.
• Further, as pointed out by Barlow (1990) also, the overall success of an integrated business/technology architecture depends upon the organizational structure, the level of IT experience within the company and the availability of information resources. Since these factors differ between firms, there may not be a single best way to view IT planning.

A comprehensive methodology for SISP will need to incorporate both the ‘impact’ and the ‘align’
views. Since it is vital to face the frustrations between the IS professionals and the users, with proper cooperation, and attitude for both parties, success will surely come.
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)   

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Assignment 2 (Due: before December 5, 2008, 13:00hrs)
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