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 Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)

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PostSubject: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Mon Nov 24, 2008 7:59 pm

Enumerate the effects of technological change in our society and describe and list strategies used in the Philippines to address the skills shortage in advanced technology sectors. (at least 1,500 words)
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Charmaine Joy Abrenica

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PostSubject: Assgt 5   Wed Dec 24, 2008 11:26 am


Technology has been amazingly been developing for the past years or decades and the pace of its progress seems to be getting more and more rapid of which the society undoubtedly accept those developments thus having both anticipated and unanticipated effects in different aspects but specifically, it is often more apparent that these effects were never anticipated on its first introduction to public. It could never be evitable for technology not to emit effects to those direct users or end users since these so called technologies are indeed made for us, the society, to somehow fill in those unsatisfied part of us that seeks satisfaction. We are never seemed to be excluded in embracing technology and eventually being a part of its consequences brought. These consequences brought by technology have always or sometimes taken part in a two faceted way, the good and the bad. On the contrary, according to SPLATS about technology.com, it is not technology that is directly neither good nor bad, since it can still elevate humans’ way of living but it can also mine a great excise upon some human beings. And which means that it is indeed dependent on the users, the humans, to which what kind of effect technology could give off wherein the attitude showed by the users shall depend on how technology could be that good or that bad for such an effect to us. It was said that a new technology usually undergoes a twenty year development period before it becomes adopted commonly and gets full-blown over the succeeding thirty years. And at the tail of its fifty years of such development and maturation, the appearance of the social effects would come to view.

From what I had delved into in relation to the social effects of technology to our society, it appears that it is indeed a two faceted way effect that technology has brought and that could either be positively and negatively. Technological dimensions such as economic, technical, legal, environment, health and safety, and interpersonal ethical has always been manifested for such technological assessment. According from a site, Example of Structural Social Effects Produced by technologies, which is an excerpt of Richard E. Sclove’s “Notes on Encouraging Deliberation about Social & Political Repercussions within Participatory Technological Assessment, some sides of how technological effects on our society take place continue to be apparent such as in social and political relations, culture and human psychological development, social impact that surface from the interaction between outwardly unrelated technologies, socio technological dynamics wherein a technology gets adopted by the public gradually which proves it is societal significant than any impacts incorporated with the technology itself.

Among the following are the effects brought about by technological changes in our society:

•Home electronic entertainment devices, besides the energy consumption and content of what they watch, indulge people indoors and alone more, and consequently away from some social engagements. U.S. political sociologist Robert Putnam even argued that television watching is the single most vital factor in clearing up the history decline in civic and political participation in their country.
•Modern technological devices, of course, provide convenience, comfort and efficiency in such a way that is culturally diminishing wherein the society disengages experientially from both social and the natural world activities.
•According to Sherry Turkle’s study, children’s interaction with computer toys alters their cognitive development.
•Technologies seem to interact to weaken face-to-face social relations at a narrow level.
•Every technology, in some way, has been embarked by humans who perceive it as intimidating their life.
•Simplified way of living, such as in the rise of leisure class, a more informed society, which can make quicker responses to events and trends and creates denser social circles.
•Complicates life: The increase in transportation technology has brought congestion in some areas, increased probability of some diseases and disorders, such as obesity, structural unemployment and etc.
•Challenges the definition of "human life" as embodied by debates in the areas of abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment, etc., which all involve modern technological developments.
•The rise of very large organizations: e.g., governments, the military, health and social welfare institutions, supranational corporations.
•Technology enables greater knowledge of international issues, values, and cultures: Globalization of ideas, embeddedness of values, population growth and control and others.
•Effects in the environment include the depletion of nonrenewable natural resources (such as petroleum, coal, ores), and the added pollution of air, water, and land. (Wikipedia.com)

I have also read an item entitled ‘The Four Effects of Technology’ by Larry A. Hickman of Southern Illinois University of Carbondale, of which he divided the effects of contemporary technology in to four.

•The Sleepwalker Effect

This refers to the tendency of the public to engage in an almost narcotic-like tendency to discount on developing situations that will eventually have significant points for them. Examples are the federally inspired research on solar energy that was buoyant during the Carter Administration, dismantled by the Reagan-Bush Administration and was now revived with increasingly impressive results.

•The Transparency Effect

If the sleepwalker effect refers to the situations wherein something seems wrong but tends to go unnoticed, transparency effect has to do with the situations in which everything is doing well but we just fail to attend to it properly. Example of this is the rise of rubella in the Bush administration, wherein they have thought the rubella case in their country was already solved, but it hasn’t really and cost them a lot.

•The Black Box Effect

The black box effect is related to the first two effects, but differs significantly from them. It is that increasing portions of our experience are opaque to everyone except specialists. It means that our lives are in some ways simpler and more convenient, since the sophistication of the tools and instruments we use has, to use Albert Borgmann’s term "disburdened" us.

•The Splintering Effect

This effect has to do, at least in part, with communication between specialists. The demands of overspecialization have produced a situation in which professionals in fields such as medicine and physics and philosophy, to name a few, has difficulty communicating with one another.


All of these effects are not really that oblivious to the public, and in fact, some organizations like IEEE Society n Social Implications of Technology where there concern is how to balance the impact of their technological work with ethical considerations is just as important today as it was before. It seems that technology has taken its toll on us and it is apparent to the developed countries, wherein they have greatly industrialized their selves. But what about the third-world countries, they would surely be one of the direct effect of technology but there’s more to these effect that they must be concerned, which is how to be up to date with the advanced technologies to become more industrialized and thus more progress. Like Philippines for instance, the limitation of resources and shortage of skilled manpower has indeed made the country in a backward phase. But the government has sought possible solutions to bridge their gap on technological advances.

•Ensuring curriculum arrangement of educational foundations with the current market needs through communicating with IT companies and organizations.
•Additional training institutions and ladderized degree programs to propagate talent supply.
•Attends to significant conferences that concerns about the development of more infrastructures like what will take place in Manila February 18 to 27, 2009, the Asia Pacific Regional Internet Conference Operational Technologies or APRICOT. The event will be hosted by Advanced Science and Technology Institute (ASTI) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), which is closely working along side with the Asia Pacific Internet Association (APIA), a non-profit association handles APRICOT. APRICOT is Asia Pacific's premier annual educational conference that provides a neutral forum to advance the skills and understanding necessary to handle a robust Internet infrastructure in the region. It provides a unique opportunity for the region's Internet industry to converge and discuss today's Internet operational issues that affect all of us.
•National Agencies in charge of ICT research in Southeast Asia has teamed up with Europe to identify opportunities on ICT research. This initiative is developed under the aegis of the European Commission and of ASEAN and in close liaison with the ICT communities from both regions.


Technology is really very important to a country’s development; it can offer numerous advantages or benefits for us though it will eventually have its drawbacks as well as effect that can either be good or bad depending of the attitude showed by the public to such technology. Anything will surely have its beneficial emission if utilized the right way. These effects that we can’t seem to control should be the first concern as soon as possible so as not to let the technology control us in reverse before everything gets too late for us. We have to opt to getting more involved with good technologies or innovations as to lessen the effects are totally unlikely for us.

Sources:

http://members.ozemail.com.au/~macinnis@ozemail.com.au/scifun/splatstech.htm#social
http://www.loka.org/idt/SocialEffects.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_and_society
http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/SPT/v3_n4/pdf/HICKMAN.PDF
http://www.theinstitute.ieee.org/portal/site/tionline/menuitem.130a3558587d56e8fb2275875bac26c8/index.jsp?&pName=institute_level1_article&TheCat=2201&article=tionline/legacy/inst2004/apr04/4w.featuresociety.xml&
http://www.zdnetasia.com/news/business/0,39044229,62039776,00.htm
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Sheena Joy Lanada

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Thu Dec 25, 2008 1:06 am

addressing the effects of technological change in our society and the strategies used in the Philippines to address the skills shortage.

Technology invention and innovation has been very fast approaching in the past years. Work has never been easier and accurate than with the manpower labor of the ancient working policy. The certainty of jobs has been fast approving to the society as the consumers and users. Industrial technologies make the work more regular and precisely scheduled and machinery is not cost effective when used irregularly. The emerged of technology in the world has brought easiness and trends that make the work much efficient but technology innovation has also brought negative effects to the society and the environment. The suitable term of the sudden change of technology in the society is simply called ‘technological change’. The word is simple but the sense is very deep and has to be extremely understood. The term simply described the process of invention, innovation and distribution of technological development. It is merely the development of technology through inventions, continuous development process and the distribution to the industries and society.

According to Adam, et.al., “An understanding of the process of technological change is important for two broad reasons. First, the environmental impact of social and economic activity is profoundly affected by the rate and direction of technological change. Second, environmental policy interventions themselves create new constraints and incentives that affect the process of technological change.” The two reasons simply explain that new technologies may provide additions to pollutions and/or may mitigate existing pollution state in the society and the policy interventions may have implications for the further policy decisions, important consequences in the terms of cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness policy analyses and welfare analyses.

Technological change is a term that is used in economics to describe a change in the set of feasible production possibilities. According to the number one (1) Internet site reference, “Technological change has profound effects not just in terms of work, but also on other aspects of our lifestyles. Some of technological change has been positive and negative effects in the society, which are the following:
1. Employment
the emerging of technology simply means labor saving in the industries such as the decline in employment in manufacturing and/or industrial work. Number of workers in manufacturing has declined 30% of labor force. In agriculture, it has been a direct consequence of mechanization of agricultural production. Small farmers have been forced off the land because of incapacity to operate or manage a large scale to use modern agricultural machinery. More and more white-collar occupations exist and technology plays an important role in this work. It has been suggested that the computer industry will take over as the major area of employment, as more and more people and business use computers. Computer has created the need for greater expertise in clerical work and act as the electronic equivalent of a supervisor.
2. Work
Technological change has led to a greater degree of specialization of function in the workforce. This is called division of labor. The worker on the factory line who performs only one function repetitively has replaced the tradesperson of the nineteenth century and earlier. This is referred to as deskilling. Skilled tradespersons and professionals are replaced by semi-skilled of unskilled workers on production lines, rendering jobs repetitive and personally unrewarding. With the division of labor, manufacturing production costs is reduced; it makes managerial control easier, the factory workers are not specialized and can be easily discarded and replaced when industrial actions occur, and manager rather than worker’s control regulates production.
3. Quality of life
The invention of labor-saving devices is said to have taken the toil out of housework, freeing up more time for leisure. In fact, people are spending more time working to pay for the appliances, which are supposed to save them from boring household task that are totally correct and approving. Advances in technology have also brought the increases in other diseases, such as some cancers and heart disease.
4. The environment
the implementation of new technology has been consumed high rate in natural resources. With the completion of technology distribution, scarcity to natural resources exists and exposed damage to the environment such as the burning of fossil fuels, incorrect waste disposal, and modern agricultural system like chemicals as pesticides and insecticides.
5. Urbanization
As employment decline in agriculture has brought flow rate in the population to the urban sites and cities where manufacturing industries and factories are located due to the transfer for employment from rural areas. The concentration of population into cities has meant that facilities like transport, entertainment, hospitals and schools can be provided at a relatively low cost. The improvement in standards of living resulting from the availability of these amenities must be offset against the negative consequences of city living.”

With the appearance of technology and its effects either positive or negative, reactions from workers have generally been unfavorable. Faced with loss of jobs and livelihood, workers have reacted against the introduction of new technology. Some of such reactions are industrial action and strikes, greater labor turnover, increased absences due to illness and industrial sabotage, such as interfering with machines.
These effects are really happening not only in foreign countries but also in our country, which locally happen in earlier years. Some factory decreased workers due to the economic crisis happening in the country; and this is also due to the technological change factors. To address the skill shortage, the government had made some agreement and step to help minimize the increasing number of unskilled and unemployed people in the country. These were made true by the following:
1. In January 2008, the government of the Philippines is particularly receptive to partnering on international recruitment. The agreement targets the sectors most in need of skilled employees - tourism and hospitality, retail and construction. This British Columbia agreement with the Filipino government will provide employers effective, quicker access to foreign workers. The British Columbia is looking to attract temporary or permanent immigrants in areas where they have labor shortages. The same kind of agreement was also finalized and signed Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Philippines and Honourable Hector Goudreau, Minister of Employment and Immigration of Canada. Under the MOU, both governments will explore shared priorities, such as meeting occupational standards, improving recruitment and employment practices, and promoting employment opportunities in Alberta. Investigated key immigration issues impacting the flow of temporary foreign workers (TFWs) and immigrants from the Philippines, including strategies to address fraud and credential assessment. The department of Labor and Employment also endorsed recruitment of work in South Australia as the country is in need of workers to address their skill shortage. To address the skill shortage in the Philippines, the department of Labor secretary said that South Australia would welcome Overseas Filipino Workers, which are recognized as hardworking, productive, adaptable, dependable, and very respective individuals.
2. Another is by the increase of employment in Call Centers presently located all over the country. Call center has been a greater help in employment especially for graduate, which have not found any job opportunity after college. In the country, the Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo in her state of the nation address has vocally endorsed it in just this year 2008.
3. Another strategy is the line of marketing taking the issue in skill shortage. In just recently, the major stakeholders in the Philippines' business process outsourcing (BPO) market recently forged an agreement to address the acute labor shortage plaguing the services sector. Representatives of the Business Processing Association of the Philippines (BPA/P), Commission on Information and Communications Technology (CICT) and IBM Philippines signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to help develop a relevant curriculum to ensure that the products of the country's colleges and universities can be absorbed by the outsourcing industry. The kind of skills required now by industry requires a lot more technical as well as management skills, particularly this service science management. Call center is an example of companies, which can benefit with this kind of agreement.

Skilled shortage is an issue in the working industry now a day. Other countries are in much need of skilled workers like the Australia and Canada and the Middle East. In the country, Filipino workers are most suitable and somehow recognized for the job vacancy. And to address the labor shortage in our country, it is best for job recruitment for immigrant workers to fight the acute state of labor shortage and economic crisis.

As an observation, technology has brought skill shortage in every part of working industry. Because of the appearance of new technology for cost effective and beneficial purposes, lack of skilled laborers was emerging and is increasing in number due to the supposedly work they should do is transferred to the electronic machineries. Technology henceforth is very important but somehow it has also caused the economic problems and lacking in some aspects of the industry, in the environment and in the society. To address this, let us just work and strive hard to the real world competitions and survival of work and living.



References:

1. http://www.intcul.tohoku.ac.jp/~yamaguch/JPG/systemic_room_supplement/systemic_room/sfl_images_resources/value_as_metaphor/history%20is%20life/technological_change.html
2. http://www.hrmguide.net/canada/jobmarket/bc_skills_shortage.htm
3. http://employment.alberta.ca/documents/rrm/RRM-MIN_expensereport_08.pdf
4. http://www.dole.gov.ph/news/details.asp?id=N000002261
5. http://www.cw.com.hk/article.php?id_article=2110
6. http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/280/soctechchange/soctech10.htm
7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technological_change[b]
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regina e. abadilla

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PostSubject: adressing skill shortage   Thu Dec 25, 2008 9:56 am

Technology gives a great effect in our society- it changes the lifestyle of the individuals, not only that, it even affects the society. A big issue that is in controversy is the alternation of technology in the skills of the laborers. Some tend to emphasize that technology just help the people to be at ease, they just assist and not replace there position. However, we can’t deny the fact that most of the businesses and other sectors here in our country are technology driven, and the number of employees is being downsized. As far as I remember, in the MIS or in the HR subject last semester, they tackle on the downsize of the employees in the implementation of the technology and automated systems in the organizations. It really gives a great impact to the employees. It is noticeable also that instead of technology should assist the users, the users where instead had been the facilitator or the administrator of the system and the system are the one handle the functions that must be done by the users. In short there is labor shortage in some sectors here in our country. But then, there are areas that human resources with qualified skills had been downsized.

The local IT industry of the Philippines had faced the skill manpower shortage. According the researches, the average growth of the IT labor in the Philippines is about ten percent, but then despite on this steady increase, it is revealed that there is an insufficient in skilled laborers to sustain the total country’s IT growth. It just mean that the skilled workers are not that enough to sustain the needs of the industry who are now employing information technology in there transactions. It is studies that there are shortage in the people who have knowledge in programming, and software developers who have specified skills in coding in Python, VBScript, Perl, XML, which is due to the fact that there are low count in the general IT population. But then nowadays, as we could see the IT related courses had been rampant this is to accommodate the demand of the industry in the IT skilled workers. Even in the field of programming and enterprise applications with database, it is noted that the skills in Lotus, MySql are in increasing its difficulty in finding the skilled sources, and the companies are preparing to pay a premium price the professionals with this skills. If only people with these skills became a commodity then, the companies wouldn’t be hustle and hardly find the skilled one. Even in terms of networking, it emphasized that there is skill shortage, particularly in network administration. There is a clear in need of establishing a training institutions and ladderize the degree programs offered in the universities and educational institutions to produce more supply of skilled graduates due to the migration of the IT skilled workforce to the other countries abroad such as US, countries in Europe, and high developed countries. It is really tempting to work abroad, that is why there had been a shortage here in the local industry.

That is why some are making policies and even strategies to address this concern. Representatives of the Business Processing Association of the Philippines, with the partnership of the Commission on Information and Communications Technology and the IBM Philippines had signed a memorandum of understanding to help in developing a relevant and appropriate curriculum that would ensure that the country’s colleges and universities could participate and can be absorbed by the outsourcing industry. Under the memorandum of understanding, the BPA/P has committed to bring the industry an advice in developing a curriculum. This had been a great strategy that had been implemented, as a student, it would be helpful if there is a nice curriculum, and this would help the students to have necessary skills and knowledge of area to learn which are in demand of the businesses and other technological sectors. Philippines has a potential to participate in different global services sectors if only the skills preparation in the schools would be addressed and employed now. The local BPO (business process outsourcing) market had been suffering from a shortage of qualified human resources and is desperate to be globally competitive where the bigger players such as the United States of America, China are considered as big competitors.
Call center industry had been in demand nowadays as intermediary to the businesses, and among the skills sets seriously by the industry is the proficiency in English. Even in different companies, English fluent and proficient are in demand skills; and addressing this skill, the industry has somewhat develop a bridging program where so called near hires, and then they are trained further in the training institutions. But then BPO industry is also targeting the higher services such as office system automation, accounting and financial analysis, software development, where such few to mention. In moving up to this value- added BDO service, the industry had noted a need for further skills development in the universities and colleges. That is why; most of the curriculum is based on CHED and other researches that are appropriate to supply the demand of the market in technological skills. IT students like us, are really in need in the industry that is why we are filled with the right teaching to develop our skills. It is said that the kind of skills required by the industry requires a lot of technical and management skills, particularly in science and system management. The lack of engineer s in the large scale automation within all industries has lead to a steady decline in the number of soon to be professionals who are taking engineering, scientific and technical courses and a reduction in the available possible apprentices; with the increasing demand in these skills, the younger one are now realizing the potential opportunities in this area. I had read an article that service science management and study focused engineering area is a new discipline intended in updating the current skills sets of the services of today’s educational institutions. It involves computer science, information technology, information management, operation research, industrial engineering, business strategies, and management, social and legal sciences. These areas are potentially essential in the business sectors. In fact, this concept is formulated by the IBM corporation team, through its Philippine office, it had been advocated that such approach had been adapted by the country’s academies. It is said that updating the current curriculum in the formulated approach would produce a T-shape professionals in the Philippine academic systems. T- Shape professionals are the one who have expertise in a particular discipline but also have knowledge in common related disciplines, such as management, to help its flexibility and efficient professional work in the industry. The Commission on Information and Communication technology coordinates with the Commission on Higher Education, and the universities and colleges to learn how to incorporate the service science management and engineering in their curriculum, no doubt that even our university is employing this approach. With this, the government recognizes the importance of the offshoring and outsourcing in the creation of careers and job works and with the contribution to the economy of the country. The government is making programs in focus on leading the industry forward and the key is to develop the talents of the students, which are the future workers needed by the industry. The other strategic issues the country program seeks to resolve includes the lack of official recognition and visibility, lack of access to social protection and lack of access to productive resources; and to address these concerns, the programs have wise strategies such as strengthening the capacity of national and local agencies and assist in the development of a local governance framework; in which parallel efforts will be made to build the capacity of IS workers through intensive organizing and training on the rudiments of managing a sustainable organization; enhancing the official attention and reducing statistical and policy invisibility through organizing, legal and policy development; enhancing access to markets, credit, training and technology; and enhancing access to social protection.

There is really an importance in ensuring that the curriculum of the academic institutions are associated with the current market needs and this is trough the consultation and partnership with the IT companies and organizations. That is why in the universities the practicum is required, they are practicing there skills in the real world industry in preparation to there future career; this work is associated also in response to the needs of the company and the skills of students that should be develop. With the increasing demand of the IT skilled professionals, companies should be aware and prepare with this situation, and make a strategy concerning the risks coming from the labor market. An in order to sustain there needs, the organizations must also help in development and improving the skills of the coming professionals, and they must extend the recruitment and give trainings for the improvement of the laborers. They must also enrich maintenance and provide the hot skills training for the existing workers and talents in the organization to avoid high additional cost associated with there skills.


References:

http://www.dole.gov.ph/news/details.asp?id=N000000764

http://www.cw.com.hk/article.php?id_article=2110
http://www.zdnetasia.com/news/business/0,39044229,62039776,00.htm
http://www.gulf-times.com/site/topics/article.asp?cu_no=2&item_no=236122&version=1&template_id=48&parent_id=28
http://www.power-technology.com/features/feature1271/
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Glayra P. Bustamante

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Thu Dec 25, 2008 1:59 pm

“–the more the tools, the faster the rate of change…”

This part was taken from a statement asserted by James Burke in his book Connections. The continuous technological events happening in our society right now confirms this assertion. I must say, the emergent developments have quite dependent to the growing number of technology tools or means available in the market. Every household holds common means that hasten the processes and aid every common man lives in it. Exactly in the early days, the utilization of traditional means has not been extensively applied not until change has constantly developing and extending when a huge number of tools has invented and was made available to human, in which their applications were fairly utilized widely. Hence, the constant rate of change must be attributed to the constant increase in the number of availability and application of these technology means.

Such change has implied with a couple of effects starting off from economical, political, social and ethical effects on human. Human behavioral change has actually been developed from several factors including technological transformation as well as, societal developments which were merely due to the former mentioned. All these effects have entirely changed the way human lives their lives. That is why, as the human’s way of life has advanced, its progress will continually expand since such advancement calls for another and for more progress to satisfy his never-ending necessities. Even if a device has satisfied one’s needs, the person owns it will eventually be asking for further features since he is becoming dependent to the device’s purpose and characteristics. Some good examples of these as cited in Wikipedia are mobile phones and data storage. Indeed, mobile phones have provided a wider horizon between people to communicate whenever and wherever they are. Data storage too, has progressed from cassette (for music) or diskette to compact discs to nanotechnology devices such as flash disk or MP3 players (for music).

In the long run, economical developments due to technology were brought to people when technology provided goods and services better access and exchange between two entities. Actually, economical change could be seen and reflected to the current economical development status of a country. The deployment of technology can define a developing nation based on how these deployments are handled by a nation. One way that has been changed in part of the application of technology is the human values. Indeed, human values have been perceived differently depending on which side or angle you are looking into. Some say, it has certainly developed (considering the positive side) or oppositely, it has deteriorated. It is clear why values have developed well or why they have worsened, you should take a better perspective on how humans deal with the technological change and how he reacts with the effect. Some people see these tools as one way to level up their intellectual limits from which they might somewhat forget that di
vine principle from we are all being bounded and founded. In other words, technology’s impact to us if worsened will lead us to the point that we forget how to recognize good from evil acts, which is the very foundation of human morality from which all of us are held strong and bounded. God’s existence in our faiths is the key why technology remains tools in our hands and our actions toward them are well-guided. Another is that human values because of technology have increased our abilities and skills on our everyday activities, I mean, values developed to attitudes, developed to abilities. Thirdly, all these extend to one, societal values which serve as customary values from we must all respect and follow through.

Technological effects also influence social relationships. From which side you are taking into account, you could see the difference and advantage between how is relationship between people takes place from traditional building and the modernized way of creating relationship due to emergence of virtual socialization. This approach has essentially contributed to the creation of virtual communities, the modernized society.

Lifestyle. Technology has significantly change human’s lifestyle. I must say, it has able to advance one’s way living his life. Entertainment has never been more entertaining to people with all high class devices and gadgets which have been made available to the people. Being informed has eventually improved from traditional acquiring of information to almost reaching the key to great knowledge just through the tips of our fingers. Multitasking can be easily done making us more flexible in many activities we do. And there are lots more to be mentioned that really increase the quality of our lifestyle.

Technological force has never been this strong compared to the earlier days. Though part of this technological impact to our society is the change in our environment too.

One of the technological impacts too is the greater and increase of job specializations. In other words, more jobs were created because of the emergent of technology such as more programmers, analysts, system designers, etc. Now, the equivalent drawback of this is that there is a skill shortage. Philippines has been facing skills shortage having most of our skilled workers immigrated or work abroad. This is since higher wage payment is being salaried outside the country which certainly, attracted our Filipino skilled workers.

With this, I was able to research and come up with few issues that should be considered to address this shortage specifically here in the Philippines. The following matters are to be considered:

1. Educational Curriculum

Since commonly, the said shortage will be addressed if our country is producing well-trained graduates, thus, it must be deliberated that there should be proper educational trainings during the student’s preparation for career in college. In this, the institutions must have well thought-out curriculum specializing the abilities or skills of the students in the area they are competent of. An example is that new curriculum in our department, wherein ladderized programs are being included in the new curriculum for both degree courses, BSIT and BSCS. Indeed, when graduates are equipped with proper training and knowledge on each of their particular fields they are specializing, they can be hired and help address the skills shortage here in our country.

2. Training

What if the organization has enough workers but their skills do not match to the needs of a company? That is when training and workshops should be organized by an organization. To address such scarcity, they must allocate budget enough for training of these personnel. This workforce should be taught well on how to equip themselves with the right skills to correspond to the needs of their company. Indeed, proper training and appropriate workshops could be helpful to discover or improve the hidden talents, skills and abilities of a worker to match up with the significant skill demand of an organization.

3. Appropriate Matching

Some organizations put wrong personnel on the wrong position. With this, the organization must review their employee’s skills and abilities, and of course, knowledge if they fit to the position they are holding. Some employers mistaken their workers of the wrong abilities they are equipped and they ended up holding wrong position in the company. And so during the scarcity time, they would not be able to realize that they are already holding the persons equipped with the said skills they are looking for.

4. Salary Motivations

Here in the Philippines, the reason why skilled workers go abroad is because of the higher wage they will get in the other country. And so, some organizations have thought of some wage motivation initiatives to attract skilled workers here. They are attracting these workers by letting them be aware of the salary payments and incentives enough to interest them. But the organizations somehow make sure that when they are already employed, it would be performance-based reward.

5. Modernizing Recruitments

One way to attract more workers is to catch a wider audience to gain good possibilities. This can be done through advertising job recruitments in the internet where the organization can catch a wider scope of applicants from any part of the country. Of course, it must be possible too that the recruitments should ensure the applicants convenience in applying for the position. A very well planning should be made before doing such strategy in hiring skilled workers though.

6. Eradicating Inequality

Since it is the skills an organization is looking for, thus, discriminations in races, gender, color, and ages should be eliminated. Any region in a country can consist of several potential skilled laborers. Any type of individuals can possess the skills an organization in search of. And so, one must not be selective with the person to hire for as long as he has the skills needed and the ease of him to help the organization is assured.

7. Contracting

To ensure and maintain a very good workforce is to let them commit to the organization. An agreement between the worker and the organization should be done so that skills shortage will be avoided. They must agree to what extent they can do for the company as well as, how long they will work for the organization.

Finally, for as long as our country could think for plans and carry out these into actions to address the scarcity happening in the country immediately, we could avoid such event to happen. Better approaches and strategies are all needed to avert skills shortage.

References:

Burke, James . Connections. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1985.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_and_society
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/positive-effects-of-technology-on-society.html
http://education.llnl.gov/bep/socsci/9/tImpact.html
http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/280/soctechchange/soctech2.htm
http://www.zdnetasia.com/news/business/0,39044229,62039776,00.htm
http://www.cs.ru.ac.za/ICTSkills/MarkHarrisPresentation.pdf
http://career-sap.blogspot.com/2008/04/philippines-faces-it-skills-shortage.html
http://www.business.nsw.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/490F4ADF-2971-439F-8BFB-82928B28D700/0/dsrd_reg_skills_shortages_bus_200711.pdf
http://www.smartcompany.com.au/Premium-Articles/Hot-Innovator/Skills-shortage-No-problem.html
http://www.hrmguide.net/canada/jobmarket/bc_skills_shortage.htm
http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2008/s2249437.htm
http://www.dole.gov.ph/news/details.asp?id=N000002261
http://www.tesda.gov.ph/page.asp?rootID=4&sID=154&pID=34
http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/apr2008/gb2008044_807790.htm?campaign_id=rss_topStories
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julie ann niones

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Fri Dec 26, 2008 9:49 am

What if you have the ability to travel back in the past then what do you want to do? Well, if I will this question my answer would just be sightseeing. If I have that ability to fly back into the past I would like to witness the evolution of technology and its effects in the society from yesterday until the present time. It is because technology is a very important thing to all of us. In addition to that the past displays that as soon as a new technology is introduced to the society, the society changes. That is one thing I wanted to witness in the ancient times for the reason that technology has been a great help to us, to everyone. We gain a lot of benefits from it. For example, it has improved every countries economy, improved our lives, and a lot more.

From an article it cited in The Impact of Technology on Society that James Burke, Connections states, “. . . the moment man first picked up a stone or a branch to use as a tool, he altered irrevocably the balance between him and his environment. From this point on, the way in which the world around him changed was different. It was no longer regular or predictable. New objects appeared that were not recognizable as a mutation of something that had existed before, and as each one emerged it altered the environment not for a season but for ever. While the number of these tools remained small, their effect took a long time to spread and to cause change. But as they increased, so did their effects: the more the tools, the faster the rate of change."

We already knew that technology has been part of our daily living. Wherever we go we see and we use technology. The importance of technology has been recognized by man way back in the ancient times. It has become a part of our system. Its evolution has helped us perk up our lives. And the progress of technology had built a conduit between man and nature. (Wikipedia, 2008) delineates technology as a broad concept that deals with an animal species’ usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects an animal species’ ability to control and adapt to its environment. The man’s usage of technology started with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools.

Our ancestors have developed different technologies for their day by day living. It has been difficult to them to live at ease without any tools to use. That is why they created technologies to make their lives easier, as a way out to their dilemma. In addition, they have developed an assortment of technologies that led us to what we make use of in the present day. For the reasons that, according to the Wikipedia (2008) were it states that technology enables greater knowledge of international issues, values, and cultures. This is due mostly to mass transportation and mass media, the world seems to be a much smaller place, and due to the following, among others: globalization of ideas, firstly, then the embeddedness of values, the growth of population and control, and many others

The presence of technology had a definite effect to ones society. According to (Wikipedia, 2008) that technology has helped develop more advance economies and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. In addition to that the implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. It is the rise of conception of efficiency in terms of human productivity. And lastly, the technological processes produce unwanted by-products such as pollution, and deplete natural resources to the detriment of the Earth and its environment.

The technology and society had a synergistic relationship. This relationship occurred long time ago. The bloom of this relationship is from the invention of simple tools until it continuous development (continues until modern technologies) that we using today. If I were to give an example of a technology to present the effect of it to the society is the mobile phone. Human had wondered how to improve communication. They are curious on how to talk to their special someone from a far away place. Before, the communication takes a long time. They use a messenger to relay the message from one person to another person where the distance between the two (the sender and the receiver) is seven mountains apart. And then, as time flies by, the communication evolved, from mailing of letter to telegram to phone. People are always wondering how to make communication faster and better. With this mentality of man had led us to the development of mobile phone. The development of mobile phone had a great influence in the society and the way people live their daily life. Still man is still wondering for improvements to communication.

Technology had encouraged the development of more elaborate economies. It has said that technology is inseparable to human society and every implementation of technology influences the values of a society by changing the expectations and realities. According to the Wikipedia (2008) that there are three major values that is affected with technological innovations: the mechanical world view, efficiency and social progress as stated by McGinn (1991). This is for the reason that in every implementation of new technology there is nothing that cannot be understood by human intelligence. Human is very adaptable. And also man is always expecting for a higher and higher percentage of output, ability or performance so that man develops machines that are efficient and could reach this expectations. In addition to that, man developed technologies to make their lives easier. And with this there is a social progress between people and this is the beneficent, kind or generous thing that man could gain from it.

The development of technology simplifies our life. It gives rise of a leisure class. An informed society can make quicker responses to events and trends. Technology sets more complex learning tasks and increases multi-tasking. It offers greater specialization in jobs and it also offers cheaper prices. The above mentioned are the benefits we gain from new innovations but in some ways technology complicates our lives. For example, pollution and structural unemployment that is according to Wikipedia (2008).

Technologies have had a great effect to every society. There have been huge demands for competent people that are knowledgeable to technology. Or people who have the skills. But unfortunately in the Philippines though our country is adapting to the fast changing world when it comes to technology is having a problem regarding to the production of competent people who has the right skills. With this the Philippine government is looking for ways to address this matter. In order to produce globally competent and skilled workers they introduced a ladderized curriculum that matches the other countries’ standards probably the American standard. It is implemented to every school, universities and other institutions whose goals are to produce technically skilled graduates. It will serve as a guide of what should be taught and as a guide of what are the needed skills outside or inside the country.

Time by time the innovations regarding technology evolves. There is a continuous advancement of these technologies. These advanced technologies are what the big or small companies use or adapts. These rapid changes in technology also make them ask for skilled people. The hiring and accepting of new employees should be modernized where the advancement of technology is utilized well. The companies’ acceptance or the hiring of an employee should go to a thorough training so that it could meet the demands.

Wherever you look at technology is always present. In every company, their have been a competition and technology has played a significant role in it. They may not take a glance of it before but however they had taken a notice the importance of technology to their success. That goes the same to government. No one had expected that the technology would have a huge impact to our society as wide as this. Producing people with competency through trainings and ladderized curriculum. The advancement of the technology pushes every company to be more creative in maximizing technology as well as the available resources.

The Philippines had embraced the evolution of technology and had make use of it. Their have a big demands of technology skilled people. The world is need of these kinds of people. The country is need of these kinds of people in order to survive these global competitions. Technology is with us even before. Utilizing the availability of resources in the country is the foundation in addressing the countries’ skills in the continuous advancement in technology sectors.

References:

1. Wikipedia (2008). “Technology and Society.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_and_society [accessed 15 December 2008]
2. Wikipedia (2008). “Technology.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology [accessed 16 December 2008]
3. The Impact of Technology on Society. http://education.llnl.gov/bep/socsci/a/timpact.html
4. Burke, James. Connections. Boston: Little , Brown, and Co., 1985
5. Burke, James. The Day the Universe Changed. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1985
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Mark Van M. Buladaco

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Fri Dec 26, 2008 10:41 am

Technology is now unbelievably developing and advancing day by day. Through man's eagerness to live , technology have been a key for successive living. Eventually, it have become our source of advancement.

According to the definition of wikipedia.org, Society is “a population of humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive culture and/or institutions. More broadly, a society is an economic, social and industrial infrastructure, in which a varied multitude of people are a part of. Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups. ” Human societies are often organized according to their primary means of subsistence. As noted in the section on "Evolution of societies", above, social scientists identify hunter-gatherer societies, nomadic pastoral societies, horticulturalist or simple farming societies, and intensive agricultural societies, also called civilizations. Some consider industrial and post-industrial societies to be qualitatively different from traditional agricultural societies. One common theme for societies in general is that they serve to aid individuals in a time of crisis. Traditionally, when an individual requires aid, for example at birth, death, sickness, or disaster, members of that society will rally others to render aid, in some form—symbolic, linguistic, physical, mental, emotional, financial, medical, or religious. Many societies will distribute largess, at the behest of some individual or some larger group of people. This type of generosity can be seen in all known cultures; typically, prestige accrues to the generous individual or group. Conversely, members of a society may also shun or scapegoat members of the society who violate its norms. Mechanisms such as gift-giving and scapegoating, which may be seen in various types of human groupings, tend to be institutionalized within a society. Social evolution as a phenomenon carries with itself certain elements that could be detrimental to the population it serves.

Ever since the invention of the telephone society was in need of a more portable device that they could use to talk to people. This high demand for a new product led to the invention of the mobile phone, which did, and still does, greatly influence society and the way people live their lives. Now many people are accessible to talk to whoever they want no matter where any of the two people are. All these little changes in mobile phones, like Internet access, are further examples of the cycle of co-production. Society's need for being able to call on people and be available everywhere resulted in the research and development of mobile phones. They in turn influenced the way we live our lives. As the populace relies more and more on mobile phones, additional features were requested. This is also true with today’s modern media player. Society also determined the changes that were made to the previous generation media player that the manufactures developed. Take for example, today’s media players. At the beginning, cassettes were being used to store data. However, that method was large and cumbersome so the manufactures developed compact disks, which were smaller and could hold more data. Later, compact disks were again too large and did not hold enough data that forced today’s manufactures to create MP3 players which are small and holds large amount of data. Today’s society determined the course of events that many manufactures took to improving their products so today’s consumers will purchase their products.

In economics, technology have also been a great help. E-conomics can be said to have arrived on the scene when the occasional, spontaneous exchange of goods and services began to occur on a less occasional, less spontaneous basis. It probably did not take long for the maker of arrowheads to realize that he could probably do a lot better by concentrating on the making of arrowheads and barter for his other needs. Clearly, regardless of the goods and services bartered, some amount of technology was involved—if no more than in the making of shell and bead jewelry. Even the shaman's potions and sacred objects can be said to have involved some technology. So, from the very beginnings, technology can be said to have spurred the development of more elaborate economies. Technologies such as (wikipedia.org):
* Appropriate technology, sometimes called "intermediate" technology, more of an economics concern, refers to compromises between central and expensive technologies of developed nations and those which developing nations find most effective to deploy given an excess of labour and scarcity of cash.
* Persuasion technology: In economics, definitions or assumptions of progress or growth are often related to one or more assumptions about technology's economic influence. Challenging prevailing assumptions about technology and its usefulness has led to alternative ideas like uneconomic growth or measuring well-being. These, and economics itself, can often be described as technologies, specifically, as persuasion technology.
*Technocapitalism
*Technological diffusion
* Technology acceptance model
* Technology lifecycle
*Technology transfer

The implementation of technology influences the values of a society by changing expectations and realities. The implementation of technology is also influenced by values. There are (at least) three major, interrelated values that inform, and are informed by, technological innovations:
* Mechanistic world view: Viewing the universe as a collection of parts, (like a machine), that can be individually analyzed and understood (McGinn 1991). This is a form of reductionism that is rare nowadays. However, the "neo-mechanistic world view" holds that nothing in the universe cannot be understood by the human intellect.
* Efficiency: A value, originally applied only to machines, but now applied to all aspects of society, so that each element is expected to attain a higher and higher percentage of its maximal possible performance, output, or ability. (McGinn 1991)
* Social progress: The belief that there is such a thing as social progress, and that, in the main, it is beneficent. Before the Industrial Revolution, and the subsequent explosion of technology, almost all societies believed in a cyclical theory of social movement and, indeed, of all history and the universe.

In many ways, technology simplifies life. (wikipedia.org)
* The advancement of a leisure class
* A more informed society
* Sets the stage for more complex learning tasks
* Increases multi-tasking
* Global networking
* Creates denser social circles
* Cheaper prices
* Greater specialization in jobs
But however, it has also complications.
* Pollution is a serious problem in a technologically advanced society
* The increase in transportation technology has brought congestion in some areas
* Technicism
* New forms of danger existing as a consequence of new forms of technology, such as the first generation of nuclear reactors
* New forms of entertainment, such as video games and internet access could have possible social effects on areas such as academic performance
* Increased probability of some diseases and disorders, such as obesity
* Social separation of singular human interaction. Technology has increased the need to talk to more people faster.
* Structural unemployment
* Anthropocentric climate change

Eventually, for our national aspect, stategies are implemented hereof in order for a development of our country. Here some popular technologies that are present in our country:
mobile phones
electronics
integrated systems
agriculture
education
defense and national security
home lifestyle
health and medicine

References:


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_and_society
http://www.practicalaction.org/?id=technology_in_society
http://www.pcworld.com/article/12115/learn_technology_help_society.html
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Mary Jade P. Damondamon

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Fri Dec 26, 2008 11:50 am

Summary:
Technology has created big changes to the civilization and society, either good or bad. Despite of the bad effect that technology has brought into us, the development of technology hasn’t stop and is becoming faster than before. The more technology grows the more we become reliant to them. Today, technology becomes the fuel that drives our life and it runs on the veins of the society.
And people are divided on two beliefs that technology have brought into the society, either bad or good. Though technology has its own side effect, society has not stop and go back in living trough cave like before, instead they develop technology. New technology is merely the solutions created by the past technology. These show that technology is now embedded to the society. And society has much concern of the benefits that technology has given to than, rather than its side effect.
Technology has indeed shaped our society. And technology is constantly changing for the development of the economy. In the past, some of these changes have been difficult to cope with. And in the future, the changes will became faster, with less time to prepare. “Unless we are well informed of the consequences, we will make the wrong choices, and our technology will destroy us”, James C. Graves, Jr., 1990.
Skill shortage has been happing in many developing countries and due to the fast technology change, it become hard for many people to keep tract. Because there are now many technologies that have been develop and is continuing to grow, it becomes difficult for us to handle them all. Though many societies are now dealing with this problem (by Expatriation, Recruitment, Job Contracting and Training), the change of technology hasn’t been stop or even slowdown. And if the society is not careful enough and is not fully prepared of the faster changes, these might become the reason of the society’s breakdown.


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Angelo F. Matildo

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Fri Dec 26, 2008 12:41 pm



As we all knew that technology has a broad concept regarding with the usage and knowledge of how tools and technique are dealing with, so it go with the details of how it affects into our living, in to our ability, into our control and to adapt it into our environment. However, as a whole it refers to those material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils but it can also include much larger aspects in our daily living, including systems, methods of organization and as well as techniques, isn’t it?
The human race’s use of technologies began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The very concrete example for that was the prehistorically discovery of the ability to control fire, since then it increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in traveling in and controlling their environment. So thus, the recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and from them, this allowed humans to interact on a global scale. However, it does not mean that not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes, since there are so many aspects of useful technologies that were also being created like the development of weapons, thus these signifies that through technologies, it had been ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons. So therefore we can conclude it right away that this so called technology
has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways, isn’t it? And in so many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies including our today's global economy and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted it can maybe products, known as pollution, and diminish natural resources, to the damage of the Earth and its environment. But due to these several effects caused by the several technologies that we have now, still there are several of implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms. In fact it became a philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. And according to the articles that I have read that Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, claiming that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. And as for me also it is indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.


So as a general, this so called technology is the relationship that society has with its tools and crafts, and to what extent society can control its environment. Since then, it has several offers for as in our daily living as the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area and as well as, a capability given by the practical application of knowledge. In fact according Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept; it is "practice, the way we do things around here.
So in this scenario , it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy people wants ; it includes technical methods, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials. When combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology", it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field.
Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. A modern example is the rise of communication technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and, as a result, has helped spawn new subcultures; the rise of cyber culture has, at its basis, the development of the Internet and the computer. Not all technology enhances culture in a creative way; technology can also help facilitate political oppression and war via tools such as guns. As a cultural activity, technology predates both science and engineering, each of which formalizes some aspects of technological endeavor.

However we have also these so called the technological change as a significant effect that are being produced due to the fact that we are using those technologies we have now. So that is used to describe the overall process of invention, innovation and diffusion of technology or processes. The term is redundant with technological development, technological achievement, and technological progress. In essence this technological change is the invention of a technology or a process, the continuous process of improving a technology in which it often becomes cheaper and its transmission throughout industry or society. So as a technological change as in a social effects, it

supporting the idea of technological change as social effects are in general agreement on the importance of social context and communication. So due to this fact that, technological change is seen as a social process involving adopters and others who are profoundly affected by cultural setting, political institutions and marketing strategies.

So due to these strategies that are being implemented in the area of the technologies, we have this technological change in our society: These are:


Industrial Technology and the Division of Labor
Division of labor:
• Breakdowns will inevitably occur and workers will need to address these challenge
• Workers are not specialized, can be easily discarded and replaced
• Makes managerial control easier to exert
• In an assembly line, production regulated by managers rather than workers
• The modern factor cannot run as the perfect machine, with no pains or problems
• Training workers to be blind robots is undesirable and ultimately detrimental to technological progress
• Number of workers in manufacturing has declined a growing # of jobs will require higher degrees of technical skill
• Plenty of jobs still require minimal levels of skill and training
• Has created need for greater expertise in clerical work



Although the development of technology is an inherently dynamic and cumulative process. Still it has a leaving aside social concerns, technological change is usually one of continuous improvement of existing technologies. We can even always make things better and faster. Thus we this dynamic, progressive element of technology makes it a unique human effort. Other efforts do not have this characteristic: and for me still we tend to have much work than this machines or shall I say these several technologies that I’m referring with, but still we can still say that even up to now, we can say that yesterday's computer is a real drag, on which technology represents humankind’s dream of continual progress maybe even creates the dream. Even there are several countries may be advanced technologically, but not in other human efforts such as equal distribution of goods and services and social justice. Since there are also primitive societies or prehistoric societies that still used in not advanced artistry and social relationships, but little technology as we think of it, isn’t it?? Thus, the notion of "progress" is a complex and can only be understood in the context of a given set of cultural beliefs and values. In recent years, concerns about the effects of technology on the labor force have been heightened by large-scale corporate downsizing programs and increases in wage inequality. Because these trends have coincided with a large increase in investment in computers, several authors have attributed them, at least in part, to skill-biased technological change; i.e., change that is “biased” by favoring workers with higher levels of education and skill over those with lower levels. This bias occurs because the introduction of a new technology will increase the demand for workers whose skills and knowledge complement that technology.


So as we can say that technology is constantly improving and has limited shelf life. The longer it takes to procure and develop a solution—the less useful the end results. Therefore it makes it all the more important to bet on technologies which have exhibited robustness, scalability, support and easier inter-operability. Thus we should acquire those several skills regarding the different technologies we have now. And update always our area or fields in which we are incline in to it. So by these several means, we should have updated our curriculum so that in times of technological changes that will be occurring, there are no means that we, the skilled ones have benefits in to it. Thus the power and knowledge make it as one…that’s all…




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Clenemae G. Galgao

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Fri Dec 26, 2008 5:03 pm

Technology really has a big impact in the society. We can say that because as we can see technology is been a part of our daily living and we can’t live without technology today. We are dependent on it now. And as far as we are concerns having all of it help us in the easiest way to do something, to entertain us, aid us to communicate with people. Because of the interaction and society really satisfy in using all of the devices, gadgets, machines; technology really burst in the community. Technology really affect human, because of the existence technology shown this day, human is seeking more from that.

But having the technology, what are the perspectives and what are the effects of it to the society, to our situation. From the PresidentPolls2008.com, they stated several effects to the society of having the technology around.

Dangers of Technology

It is stated that the over-all existence of technology is good but our world is not perfect, we are not perfect, so our creation is not perfect. “There are clearly dangers and drawbacks that may appear. Every new technology breeds unanticipated or unwanted side effects. For instance, the Industrial Revolution, while reducing manual labor in the long run, had and still has many negative consequences, such as pollution, child labor, and sweatshop conditions.”

Those consequences are appearing now; we can see it to our very own eyes, of what is happening to our world this time. Even though we can see it as the most important things around we can’t insure that there is no side effects.

Technology Created Starvation

“Also, the Green Revolution of the 40s, 50s, and 60s, while allowing increased agricultural production in developing countries, also led to a population explosion in those countries, creating more starvation. New technologies are usually required to solve the problems created by older ones.”

Technology Used for Good and Evil

“Technology, like just about everything else, can either be used for good or for evil. I tend to think that certain technologies are designed more for good and others more for evil. For instance, I think few people would dispute that electricity has been beneficial to mankind. But I tend to think that most weapons have had an overall negative influence on society, though I'm sure that many would disagree.”

Yes, it is designed for good things and mostly it is done for evil. Many technology where involved in terms of explosion of war in many foreign country. There is nuclear technology which was produced by the other foreign country that can kill almost every people of the world.

Afraid of New Technologies

“People tend to be afraid of new technologies, though once they become widely used, the fear subsides. The novel "Frankenstein", written by Mary Shelley in 1818, warned of the dangers brought about by the Industrial Revolution. Many science fiction stories have been written based on the theme of man versus machine, expressing concern about the dangers of artificial intelligence going awry, though this concern has seemingly subsided since the advent of the personal computer.”

It is really fearsome when in terms of the biggest involvement of technologies in our lives. Taking for example the robots that has been created in order to help and to do humans work. Machines are intelligent in terms by their creation. They are programmed to have a high memory about the human world. What if it will come a time that the existence of this machine is more than the existence of humans? What will happen to the world? What will happen when the time comes that they are the most powerful than humans and will rule the entire human community? What will happen to us? Well, I can’t picture out such thing. Machines are dedicated to help human not to over-power there will.

Nuclear Power

“Nuclear technology is one of the significant technological advancement of our time. Nuclear technology is research that involves the reactions of atomic nuclei. It has many vital applications in modern society, the most prominent of which are nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine, and nuclear power. The most controversial of these is, without a doubt, nuclear weapons. First created by the United States in 1945 during World War II, they were developed out of the fear that Nazi Germany would first develop them. A weapon of incredible power, a single nuclear weapon has to potential to decimate, level, and destroy an entire city. The first and only times a nuclear weapon has been used are in World War II, when the United States bombed the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with the “Little Boy” and “Fat Man” bombs, respectively.

The usage of these bombs allowed for the near instantaneous end to the destructive World War II. Although two cities were leveled and many lives were lost, the situation involving the usage of these nuclear weapons is not nearly as negative as one may perceive. Had the bombs not been dropped, Japan would not have surrendered, and it would have without a doubt prolonged the war for months or even years. This would have forced an Allied Forces ground invasion of Japan in an effort to end the war, which would have resulted in the loss of many more people than caused by the deployment of the two nuclear weapons.

When you look at the usage of nuclear technology, you must look at the situation from the viewpoint of human society as a whole, and not from a standpoint of an individual. Today, in more modern terms, nuclear weapons play a huge role in our lives.

Being in possession of nuclear weapons is not only a positive thing, it allows for us to be free. By holding an arsenal of nuclear weapons, we have a nuclear deterrent. In this sense, we prevent wars and conflicts from escalating into another World War by instituting world order. By having nuclear technology, we are ensuring the well-being, longevity, and freedoms of the human race.

Interestingly, public concerns about nuclear power have gone the other way though. When nuclear power was first developed, most people embraced the new technology until they became more aware of the potential hazards.”

Though society has based many of its goals upon advances in technology, there are some effects that might arise. An article, Technology’s Influence on Society, stated three effects that may be a problem of the existence of technology

Less Tolerant

Tolerance is a dying concept in today's society. Productivity has become all to important, while workers rights and needs, have become a lesser priority. Today's employers have demanded not only more work, but they also want faster. Almost any new work equipment has been based on this fact. This new work strategies includes: construction equipment, computers, and any new methods for producing products. All this equipment, while making the job easier, also created a need for fewer people, and also gave employers something they really wanted: fast, cheap labor. In this way, technology spawned a new, less tolerant society. Speed and efficiency are the driving forces for technology, and people begin to expect these amenities to help them solve problems and work faster. If they are not provided, there is a problem with productivity.

Loss Motivation

Technology also causes many problems with motivation among people. To completely understand this idea, you must first understand how motivation relates to it. When there is an easier way around a problem, obviously people are going to use this method. This causes people to begin to expect to do things in this way, and less thought and work are expected. This is a common problem among more than just under-motivated people. This can also be a problem among those who are in a situation where there is little supervision or none at all. If there is only a job given, with no supervisor, or instructor there will be less work. On top of that, if a problem is encountered, there is no help on hand. This alone can cause a person to become frustrated with the work, and become less motivated. This however is not caused by the technology, but by the lack of utilization of technology. It could be considered technology related if there was a problem with work ethic related to technology provided at work. For example, if a student were to fail to do their work because they played solitaire on the computer all day, rather than working on their lesson plan, this would be an example of how technology would effect motivation. An outside factor, in this case a computer, is causing a difference in motivation.

Society is More Lazy

Technology, despite having its many benefits, has it's many drawbacks. Laziness is a major side effect of technology. People are becoming extremely dependent on computers, as well as other technology. This became very apparent to me the one day at work. A new edition to our productivity arsenal has been walkie-talkies. While walking with my manager, we were discussing them, and at the time, he was using the one. He stated, "I love these things, they save so much running around." After hearing this, I realized that, at the time, we were roughly 6 feet from the nearest phone, which could have done the same thing. This, in my opinion, was a perfect example of the laziness technology produces. While there was another form of technology right in the area, it was too difficult to use it. When I mentioned this, he said, "It's not laziness, it's just more efficient." The idea of laziness was passed off as efficiency. Being more efficient does not necessarily allude to laziness, but laziness is usually the motivator behind productivity.

In the Philippines the advancement of technologies is not that high. We are poor to innovation in terms of technological condition. We are somehow behind in terms of lifestyle and trend when we are talking about technological innovation. Maybe planning and adaptation is necessary in order to deal the crisis we are having right now.

REFERENCES:

http://www.presidentpolls2008.com/Philosophy/effects-of-technology-on-society.html
http://www.scienceray.com/Technology/Applied-Science/The-Effects-and-Influences-of-Technology-on-Society-and-Human-Kind.114891
http://www.angelfire.com/pa3/SeniorProject/tolerance.html
http://www.angelfire.com/pa3/SeniorProject/motivation.html
http://www.angelfire.com/pa3/SeniorProject/laziness.html



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John Wilson Lee

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Fri Dec 26, 2008 5:47 pm

Effects of Technological Changes

The technologies that we are using today are way more advance than before. Almost every week, a new technology gets pimped or modified. Every now and then, a technology phases out and some are newly introduced. Drastic increase in the change or evolution rate of the technologies lets the people be more productive and sufficient. Due to the emergence of the helpful technologies, people nowadays become what they said as a well rounded being. Where in those who are not experts in some filed are capable of performing task as if they are with the use of these technologies. These changes and innovation brought by these wonderful technologies are very well seen today in our own society. These only show how these technologies important to our lives. For the many categories of profession, technologies of today are great tools in order to harness many other fields and also are great tools for doing or performing more.

The advancements and innovations in the technologies we used have brought many changes that affect our lives and our society as a whole. These changes affects many factors of lives of people in such way that there comes a point where in moving away from them are an impossible thing. Because of these changes that affect the people, the attachments to technologies are now getting more intense. More and more people are now hardwired to technologies that they become inefficient when technologies and taken away.

According to some authors, the changes that are brought to the world are always a two-sided matter. For an instance, the increase in the exchange rate of Peso and Dollar. With the effect of this change to the families with love once abroad, they will surely be happy about it for it means more amount of money will they have from dollars. But as to those importing businesses, they will surely be having hard time because their imported products will cause more. This situation also happens to the technological change happening to our society. The battle of good and bad effects still continues even with the technologies that are very helpful to the people. Among are the technological changes that are affecting the society in different aspects:

Education

In some case, the field or areas where these technologies are arising from are from the academe or from the education as a whole. The outputs of the students in the different areas are then the basis for the developments of these technologies. Even in education the effects of the technological change are very visible. From the field of choice to the choices itself, the changes are visible. Before, there are only few areas that students master but as of today, there are so many areas to choose from. All of these are offering wonderful learning and also offering numerous technologies to ponder on. Because of the many technological effects and changes, the educations today are somewhat more dwelling into the modernization and interconnection. Where in one field will now be pared with another one to further extend the areas it can cover and thus, eventually providing peoples more and more outputs and also more and more technology.

Even in the way of delivering the education nowadays are the concrete examples of the effects of technological change in the society. Before, there is really that concept of face-to-face interaction of the student and teacher. But as of today, that is slowly vanishing. Thus there exist online learning and other means of educating where technology is really working hand-in-hand with the people.

Another thing also is with regards to information access. The people today are more given a freedom to access too many kinds on information via internet. According to teacher which resides in the Philippines, more and more students today depend upon the power of the internet in terms of finding information. There came a point where incorrect information is carried upon by the students or in some case, misused of these information are exhibited.

Lifestyle

Since all technologies that humans developed are for their own purpose, they are the main entities that are being affected by the changes that are happening to them. Even long before the materialization of today’s technologies, the lifestyles of the people are changing with the slightest changes that occurred.

Before, only the more fortunate members of the society have a greater access to the technologies that even the less fortunate can have today. The lifestyles of the people also before are simpler than compared to what we have before. Things really are changed because of the coming of these technologies. There are now so many things that people do that involves technologies. From starting till the ending the day, people are interacting with these technologies. More and more things are also being done by many people with the aid of these tools. Because of technologies, people are more productive and thus also earn more. Because of this, people are also very dependent to these technologies. For the people have developed so many tools that can make them do less and produce more outputs. We can say that the lives of the people are getting easier but in a different way. People do things easily because of the technologies but then it also have negative effects. Dependencies and laziness are among the negative effects that can be viewed from technologies. Because also of the laziness the people acquire, they are now more vulnerable from sickness and diseases for their bodies are weaker than before. But in the good side, technologies also offer many wonderful things that aid humans when they are suffering from illnesses. The new medical technologies today are some of the result of the technological changes in our society today.

This only shows that with every change that happens to our technology, our lifestyles will surely follow.

Workplace

Most advance technologies are found in the workplace. There are now so many technologies that help the employees to do more job with fewer efforts and less energies to exert. But even with this good effect, things are not that favorable for the people. In having so many technologies that helping people, there come a time where the people themselves are replaced by technologies, thus leaving more people with no job and no income.

Entertainment

Entertainment is also one of the hot spot where technologies are being provided to. The market for technologies with regards to entertainment increases as days pass by. According to US research, more and more people are in touch with technologies like televisions, computers, internet and other media than having interactions with other people.

Due to the massive and high increase in the demand for wonderful things that make lives of the people more enjoyable, the rate of change and development for these technologies also increase. With the use of internet, people are now more attached to the world of entertainment. Almost everything in the world today can be found with just one click, through the internet. Piracy was among the negative effects of the technological change to entertainment. Because of the availability of the information from the internet, it is easier to have access to entertainment media or information. The distribution is also easier.

Business

Among the most influential aspect that provides a tremendous urge for the technologies to change and evolve is the business. Business almost dictates most of the changes to the technology. Base on the previous researches that lead to manifestation of these technologies, the trend of technology is really going towards a target; it is the market. Because of the use of internet and other technologies, the business has experience a very dramatic change. The market today is not just limited to a single place or continent but to the whole world as a whole. Because of that, there is now a wider market that caters products for everybody. And this is because of the power of our technologies.

Even with the advancements the technologies have given to us there are also problems that we are experiencing. Among the many developing countries are currently experiencing changes and difficulties. Among their problems is with regards to shortage of skilled manpower for their own countries. Philippines, as among the developing countries, experience this kind of situation in its labor and services group or sector.

According to a study done by Alburo and Abella (2002), there are many aspects that cause the shortage and these are the few:
1.Unparallel wavelength of the Academe and the Industry
2.Less job opportunities
3.Less salary

Because of these reasons, the government and other sectors provided its people these remedies to solve the problem with shortage of manpower. And these are some of the strategies they’ve done:
Educational Partnerships

Because of the problems that arise, the academe is one of the blamed areas why this happened. With that, the solution is to make partnerships with the other organization which has a greater experience or knowledge with such field. With the use of that partnership, the academe can assure that the information from them are exact and is concurrent to what the real world is using. A best example is the partnership of the CISCO Networking Academy with the Education Community.

Trainings

There is also much training that the different sectors provide so that there can be many other people will be able to grasp on the benefits of having a higher value of information on hand. Many agencies today provide training for call center agent skills.

Job Opportunities

Among the reason why skilled people leave the country is because of less job opportunities here. They fly out of abroad to find a greener pasture. Inviting more investor to invest here in our country is among the actions that our government is doing to make sure that skilled manpower will not go out of the country.

Our society nowadays is considered to be more advance than ever. There are also many people that said that our society today are leaving the old cultural ways and opening its doors towards modernization and advancement. As the society changes, people also adapt with it. But as time goes by, the effects will always be there whether it’s positive or negative; people will surely work with it and try to find the balance with things.




Reference:
http://www.tesda.gov.ph/page.asp?rootID=4&sID=154&pID=34
http://www.tesda.gov.ph/page.asp?rootID=4&sID=235&pID=34
http://www.tesda.gov.ph/page.asp?rootID=4&sID=48&pID=34
http://www.tesda.gov.ph/page.asp?rootID=4&sID=47&pID=34
http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2007/oct/14/yehey/career/20071014car2.html
https://www.businessmonitor.com/bmi/it/philippinesit_order.html
http://web.si.umich.edu/tprc/papers/2003/199/EffectsTechChange2.pdf
Skilled Labour Migration from Developing Countries: A Study of the Philippines
F.A. Alburo; D.I. Abella,2002
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April Rose Raganas

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PostSubject: Assignment # 5   Fri Dec 26, 2008 6:17 pm

Enumerate the effects of technological change in our society and describe and list strategies used in the Philippines to address the skills shortage in advanced technology sectors. (at least 1,500 words)
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Our period is commonly said be a time of rapid technological change. The effects of technological change occurring in our society is said to be dramatic, others are subtle, and the changes are experienced in the mundane activities of everyday life. From the beginning of our assignment we get to know what is technology and the reasons why we used them. We mentions many of the positive aspects that a technology can give us while juxtaposing it with the many negative effects that it will cause in our society.

History demonstrates that when new inventions are introduced into a society, the society changes.
Technology is changing and will continue to change society. There are many factors that change a society at any one time in history, but that technology plays a key role. There are number of ways that our society and surroundings has affected by technology. It can be enlivening and horrifying. In many societies, the result of advanced economy and the rise of the quality of life of humanity are brought by technology. On the other hand, many technological processes produce unwanted results that harm the society and the natural resources. Acknowledging the nature of technology, the public supports it in spite of the disaster brought by technology because as observed most of us people are poorly informed about how technology actually works.

The ability of human to create and use technology sets us apart from other animals. Technologies are developed to help us do something we could not do. It is not always the case that the invention of technology comes about in order to meet the existing needs of mankind. However, over the history of technology it main purpose of invention is to solve for problems. When our needs increases new technologies are created, thus this new technology often gives satisfaction in our own needs. It is not always for practical reasons the intention of attaining technology because there are also new technologies often developed as a symbol of prestige like the innovation cars having renowned brand names. It is naturally dynamic and increasing process the development of technology. Without considering the social concern, technological change is absolutely one of the unstoppable advancement of present technologies. With this technological advancement we can always make things better and faster, which is one of the main goal of developing technology, improving the quality of life. We take this technological change in our society as one of the unique human endeavor. Other endeavors do not have these characteristics that in spite of the disaster brought by technology still the public support it. Nowadays, most countries are advanced technologically, and they are now experiencing the effects of technological change in their society.

A Technologically progressive society is one in which problems are observed in systematic way and, more importantly, that solutions to problems are possible.With progress of technological change, human in the society has stopped believing in magic powers because they can find answer in the technology itself. Our lack of understanding over the technology can render us powerless over it. Understanding of technology is the key importance. This influences what technology is or is not made available to us.

There are winners and losers in our society because of the effect of this technological change. Since technology has both positive and negative aspects it is the greatest source of economic growth or the technology of production. The negative effect of this economic growth is elimination of man power. Possible, there will be so many jobless people and they will have a hard time looking for a job.
People in the society lost distinct identity, and the way of life began to fall in to pieces.

Technology does not succeed or fail on its natural value. Some technology succeeds because of particular group interest like the victory of the atomic power while some technology fails because of particular group interest like the AIDS research, ‘til now there no is treatment found for this kind of disease.
The technological Fix: Technology used to attempt solutions for many problems, Heroin addiction: development of Methadone and now cocaine vaccine, Car Accidents: seat belt and air bags, Graffiti on public property: stronger chemicals to resist paint.

The technological change in our society may also cause poverty. This is social problem and the goal of technology for this social problem is to come up with different ways to solve poverty. When problem cannot be easily cut off: technological solution less likely to be effective. Technology will continue to make advancements in their respective field, but until society can learn to protect our world, especially our environment, from these advancements, they will continue to cause problem. We can see how much potential damage technological change can bring forth, yet the cure for this damage can be found in new technology which is also brought by the technological change. The cycle pattern is clear that technological change plays both roles a constructive and destructive in the society. A technology is a solution to one problem creates new problem. Artificial hearts help sustain life but it is expensive, growth of population needs to be cared for, and issues of morality.

In many ways, technology simplifies life. The effects of lifestyle in the society brought by technological change are: the rise of a leisure class; a more informed society, which can make quicker responses to events and trends; Sets the stage for more complex learning tasks; Increases multi-tasking (although this may not be simplifying); Global networking; Creates denser social circles; Cheaper prices; Greater specialization in jobs. On the other hand, technology complicates life: Pollution is a serious problem in a technologically advanced society (from acid rain to Chernobyl and Bhopal); The increase in transportation technology has brought congestion in some areas; Technicism; New forms of danger existing as a consequence of new forms of technology, such as the first generation of nuclear reactors; New forms of entertainment, such as video games and internet access could have possible social effects on areas such as academic performance; Increased probability of some diseases and disorders, such as obesity; Social separation of singular human interaction. Technology has increased the need to talk to more people faster; Structural unemployment; anthropocentric climate change.

Technology has followed a path that began slowly, and is now increasing rapidly. Technology is once again adding to this base of knowledge needed to better society. People today are ignorant and do not fully understand the effects of technology. This ignorance shifts the balance between society and technology, causing technology to no longer be properly checked by public awareness. Even though technology has many positive effects, in the long run, it may be argued, technology generates more harm than good. Technology has been with us since the very beginning. It has lasted all this time and has become even more prominent.

People should stop thinking only about the short-term gains that can be facilitated by technology and focus on long-term issues; otherwise, the use of technology can create an irreversible, dangerous world state that will completely outweigh the good that has come from it. The negative effects of technology will outweigh the positive ones. Society will continue to rely on new advancements to cure these technological complications. However, we should always bare in mind that we shouldn’t rely solely on technology to solve our problems.

As a society people have access to and benefit from advanced technologies, yet rarely do they understand how these technologies function or how they can be fully used. As such, they are often left feeling frustrated and incompetent. Lack of participation and understanding of technological development and application can produce a fusion of naïve hope and paranoid reaction. In the Philippines, to address the skills shortage in advanced technology sectors, the public must become more aware and participatory in facilitating the causes, applications, and results of these innovations and in order for technology to achieve its maximum benefits in the future. Technologies are ever-increasing and more advanced. Our efforts to adjust our lifestyles in order to preserve earth’s diminishing resources are also important in order to conquer our earthly conditions. Society’s ignorance of technology doesn’t need to be a permanent condition, and that people can eventually come to comprehend the sources and consequences of changes in technology through increased education.

Technology is overall advantageous to society. We realize that society should be thankful for all the benefits that technology has provided, allowing humans to lead comfortable and convenient lives. If society could understand that technology does create many problems and actively participate in the effort to resolve these problems, they would see that the positive effects could outweigh the negative effects. Although technology creates many problems, the solution is not to give up all that we have gained from it, but to address these problems, and then continue to reap their benefits. Recognizing all of the small contribution that technologies have made in our lives help us more ambitious to have a better life. The star leading strategy used in the Philippines to address the skills shortage in advanced technology sectors is to conquer the ignorance which is the major problem.


References:

http://www.nas.edu/21st/society/
http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/280/soctechchange/soctech1.htm
http://learning.berkeley.edu/cipolat/PDF/ISF60/2005/Student%20summaries/Volti.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_and_society
http://education.llnl.gov/bep/socsci/9/tImpact.html
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Rendell Andrin

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Fri Dec 26, 2008 7:03 pm

Technology has truly brought changes the way people are living. Living for most people became more convenient generally. These lives of most people can never be the same as it was in the past. As Antony said in 1993, “Technology is one of the principal driving forces of the future; it is transforming our lives and shaping our future at rates unprecedented in history, with profound implications which we can't even begin to see or understand.”

Right now, it's quite enormous to count how many technologies were created. Thus, in almost all aspects of people living, these technologies were applied considering for good and bad responses.

Positive and Negative Effects of Technology

Technology has automated many of the critical processes in the industry as well the household. The electronic gadgets that have entered the homes of the common man have saved him from the daily household work.

The automobile industry and technology are almost interwoven. Times have witnessed this industry evolve from mechanical scooters to automated aircrafts. Animals were the only modes of transport in the olden days. Technology was the driving force behind the creation and design of the modern-day automobiles. Bicycles evolved into scooters and sports bikes. The idea of having four-wheeled modes of transport gave rise to the creation of cars. Modes of air and water transport came up, thanks to technology.

Machines have automated many of the crucial industrial processes. Machines are now taking up many of the mundane jobs that were once executed by human workers. Technology has evolved to an extent where machines can perform tasks that are physically inaccessible to man. The use of advanced technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence has proved helpful in life-risking tasks like mining and space exploration.

The computer technology, needless to say, has changed the face of the world. Computers can store, organize and manage huge amounts of data. They can process large amounts of information. Computers have given rise to the software industry, one of the most progressive industries of the world. The Internet that seeded from the computer networking concepts is the most effective communication platform and the largest information base existing today.

The Internet has brought an important positive change to the entertainment and advertising industry. Advertisements can reach the masses within seconds over the Internet. The entertainment media has progressed only because of the advancements in technology.

The digitization of information has made it possible for us to store it in a compact form. Digitization enriches the quality of information storage. Digital voice and digital images are of a higher quality. Digital cameras and digital television provide their users with an enriched picture quality, thus bettering their experience with technology.

Cellular communication has revolutionized the communication industry. The conventional telephone, also a piece of technology, was one of the earliest technological developments in communication. Mobile phones have broadened the horizons of communication by enabling convenient long-distance calling.

Satellite communication is another important dimension of technology. Satellite TVs and satellite radios have eased the broadcasting of events across the globe.

These were only a few of the fields influenced by technology. It is almost impossible to enlist all the positive effects of technology on society. This was just a glimpse of the real big picture.

Aside from beneficial effects made by the technology here below are too obvious bad result made by technology.

Loss of common purpose. For millions of years, mankind has been used to doing everything for themselves. For a long time peoples' main concerns were survival. To survive means to go out into the woods or forests and shoot animals for the food which the family needs to eat for the day. People of modern society never think about hunting for food or clothes. Now, it is all brought to people instantly through a new standard of survival. The new standard for survival means making money to go to a mall or supermarket and getting everything a family needs. A family can get food and clothing at these places without ever having to go into a forest or a lake. This thought is ever so frightening. When a person from modern society goes into a supermarket and buys a pound of fish, he or she doesn't even think of the process that went into the arrival of that piece of fish. He or she didn't need to go to a lake, all that was needed was to drive to your local supermarket and buy it. No fishing or hunting was necessary.

Climate Change. Although we consider automobiles as one of the greatest invention, but automobile was still one of the major causes while we are suffering climate changes today.


Philippine Address to Skill Shortage


In DOLE or Department of Labor and Employent report entitled, “To address mismatch of skills and jobs, government urges job seekers to strengthen skills, education” March 16, 2005.

The Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) has underscored the need to strengthen workers' skills and education as mismatch between skills and jobs causes the growing unemployment rate.
Although January 2005 figures showed that employment grew by 0.3 percent or 31.634 million from 31.547 million last year, Labor and Employment Secretary Patricia A. Sto. Tomas said that the latest labor force survey of the National Statistics Office (NSO) also showed that 43 percent (1.7 million) of the unemployed population have reached at most high school education, while 21.2 percent (855,000) have reached only elementary level.
"This would indicate that unemployment is basically a mismatch between skills and jobs, and it would do well for job seekers, including graduates, to develop suitable skills that would enhance their opportunities," Sto. Tomas said
The January 2005 survey also revealed that employment was boosted by the country's agriculture, fishery, forestry sector, which posted an employment increase of 1.7 percent (+185,000) offsetting the slight decreases registered in the services (-0.2 percent) and industry (-1.4 percent) sectors.
The services sector, however, remained the country's largest source of employment, accounting for 48.4 percent (or 15.298 million employed workers), Sto. Tomas said. It was followed by agriculture at 35.9 percent (11.359 million), and industry at 15.7 percent (4.977 million), giving the country a total 31.634 million employed population in January 2005.
While mismatch between skills and jobs remains a problem, the DOLE was optimistic that it was right on track of its target of creating more jobs similar to what was achieved last year.
The more than 1,000 public employment service offices (PESO) in various local government units (LGUs) and schools placed some 804,367 job seekers mainly in local jobs, complemented by the POEA's and the legitimate private sector recruitment industry's deployment of some 933,588 overseas Filipino workers in some 190 OFW host countries worldwide.
Sto. Tomas said that as a result of continued promotion in both traditional and emerging overseas labor markets, inward OFW remittances helped strengthen the Philippine economy as these rose by a total 1.8 percent to US$8.5 billion (around P467 billion) last year from $7.6 billion in 2003.
Complementing this, the DOLE's Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), via the various training schools under its supervision, produced some 1.176 million graduates on in-demand technical education courses, and increased to 52 percent the certification rate of technical graduates last year, Sto. Tomas added.

IT industry is also one of the biggest industry to consider for late bloomer country like the philippines. Also it is a common issue to address regarding skill shortage on this particular field of expertise Information Technology. In one report, entitled “Philippine faces IT skills shortage”
References said, According to the Canada-based research firm, the average growth of IT labor in the Philippines stood at 10 percent in the last 10 years and is predicted to grow at a "steady" 3 percent in the next five years.

Despite the increase, the XMG study revealed an insufficient skilled labor pool to sustain the country's total IT growth, which is projected to accelerate by 30 percent to 35 percent year-on-year through 2010.

The study identified the skills shortage in Python, VBScript, Perl, XML and VB.net programmers in the Philippines, due to low incident count coming from the general IT population.
In the field of programming and enterprise applications, the study noted that skills in SAS, SAP, Lotus Notes and MySQL will be increasingly difficult to source, and companies must be prepared to pay a premium price to recruit professionals with these skills.

The study further emphasized a shortage of networking skills, particularly those in network administration.

The majority of fresh talents in the country will be sourced from Metro Manila, making up 22 percent of the estimated 50,000 to 60,000 graduates each year, according to XMG.

"There is a clear need to establish additional training institutions and ladderized degree programs [offered] by existing universities to boost the dwindling talent supply, due to the growth of the Philippine offshoring industry and migration of IT skilled workforce to countries such as the United States, Singapore, Canada, the Middle East and Europe," XMG statistician Benedict Dormitorio said.

The analyst also stressed the importance of ensuring curriculum alignment of educational institutions with current market needs through close consultation with IT companies and organizations.

XMG chief analyst Lauro Vives said: "With the increasing demand for IT professionals today, companies should be aware of the situation and align their strategies to mitigate risk coming from the labor market."

In order to minimize paralysis on critical operations and sustain growth, companies must extend their recruitment reach and improve efforts in skills development. They should also enrich retention and provide "hot skills" training for existing talents in the organization to avoid high additional cost components associated with these skill areas, XMG said.


Sources

[1] http://www.buzzle.com/articles/positive-effects-of-technology-on-society.html
[2] http://www.essaysample.com/essay/003111.html
[3] http://www.dole.gov.ph/news/details.asp?id=N000000477
[4] http://career-sap.blogspot.com/2008/04/philippines-faces-it-skills-shortage.html
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Nate Jordan Castillo



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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Sat Dec 27, 2008 2:39 pm

Technology has been a very big factor in molding our lifestyle. It played a very big role in the our work place and our work ethics. Since ancient times people were relying to technology in order to make our lives easier. Human kind is evolving with technology. Now we are using technology more and more to the extent that we have become almost non functional without technology and its convenience. Technology has been continually influencing our society on more and more ways.Technology comes with tradeoffs, many of which are portrayed in the video segment. On the one hand, for instance, technology brought the World Wide Web to our classrooms and homes. Technology permits communications and travel from almost anywhere to almost anywhere else, and assists medical practitioners in their diagnoses and scientists in their research.

Rapid development and acceptance of technologies have led many people to assume that, in a matter of time, new ones will be developed to cure all of society's ills. the promise of computers was that the productivity increases realized by using them in the workplace would afford employees more free time to spend outside of work. Computer technology have indeed increased productivity and made a lot of jobs much less labor-intensive, but many people work longer hours than ever before.

The future of the impact of the digitalized world can already be seen and predicted. People use email to exchange pictures and video. Web sites provide information in every form. Languages are briged. The world becomes one as language barriers begin to fade away. The digital world has moved on from imagination to normal human environment. People begin to form digital communities. People with the same interest begin to gather together and people from different parts of the world can share stories, pictures and experiences with ease. They can hold meetings, talk, exchange idea and mingle without leaving home. Digitalization has opened the societies bound by distance and economics. The question today is what can we do? Many thing have change from the start of the digitalization. We can see that further developments will change the way of life of mankind.

First technology has changed the foreign relations of every country. Before almost all conflicts of civilizations result to war. This has been because of lack of communication with the delegates of different countries. The most convenient way of communication before was in the form of messengers but it takes a lot of time before the information is fully disseminated this lengthens the tension and pressure between countries. Technology today does not only make foreign communications easy but also strengthen the bond between countries.

Technology makes us feel more secure. Technologies like CCTV cameras makes us feel more secure knowing that the actions of different people can be observed and recorded. Technologies like this intimidates those with ill intentions. Also faster information dissemination updates us with possible dangers and enabling us to to secure our selves form it.

Technology widens our social network. Before we can say that our social network only consist of people whom we know in person. This makes our social network very limited. People which we don't have direct contact with can not be included in our social network with past technology. Today we are not only limited with people we interact personally. We can now be friends with people from different countries and different cultures. Our society becomes much oriented with the different cultures in the world and lessens the cultural barriers between us.

Technology makes our lives more comfortable. We use and create technology mainly to answer our needs. These technologies saves us time and energy. Today we use technology from the time we wake up till the time we sleep. During the morning we use stoves and toasters to make breakfast. Technologies like these frees us from the hassle of making fire through the use of firewood. These saves us time and enables us to have time to relax and enables us to finish our activities on time.

Technology makes young people smarter. When i say smarter it does not necessarily mean that kids today are smarter when it comes to IQ levels it simply means that young people today are more aware of the things around them. We are more updated with the current events and we gain vast of the general knowledge of the world through the internet. It is always easier to answer our questions today. We do not need to rely on our parents or teachers to answer our questions making learning faster. However this is not advantageous all the time. This somehow make young people harder to control because they begone to think that they know everything.

Digitalization makes most tools handy. Most of the things become faster and lighter. Things like books to libraries, maps, and other tools are now handier than ever. Digitalization enables us to carry almost anything we need on the palm of our hands. It is like bringing your home entertainment system on your pocket or your entire lifestyle with you.

Technology can make us more violent. When we watch Tv or a movie we usually see many images of violence and people hurting others. It can become traumatic especially on children as we see it more and more. Kids that are starting to grow and are shaping their personality values and beliefs can become aggressive or they can lose a sense of reality and fiction of what they are seeing.

Technology can change public opinion. Technology has a huge impact on society and also in public opinion. They can shape the public opinion in different ways. For example, after the attacks of 911 the media gave a huge coverage of the event and exposed Osama guilty for the attack as they were told by the authorities. This shaped the public opinion to support the war on terrorism, the same happened with the war on Iraq.

Technology can change young people. People buy what they see on Tv, what their favorite celebrity advertise and what is acceptable by society based on the fashion that the media has imposed them.
Young people are in a stage of life where they want to be accepted by their peers, they want to be loved and be successful. Technology makes advertising faster and makes it more available to people.

Obesity has increased in recent decades despite no increase in calorie consumption and a rise in dieting and exercise. While typically treated as a public health issue, obesity is also an economic phenomenon that is avoidable through behavioral changes. Technological change has lowered the cost of calorie intake by making food cheaper and has raised the cost of expending calories by lessening the need of physical activities for work . Weight becomes the result of personal choices such as occupation, leisure-time activity or inactivity, and food consumption.

Technology has changed the way people do business. From trading goods it has developed to a stage where people are able to sell virtual items. Business becomes more advertizable and accessible because of the internet. Instead of creating aditional branches business owners prefer putting up websites for there costumes. And consumers today can shop inside the walls of their houses. And almost all the items sold today are synthetic items. Items which are derived using more advance technology.

According to Wikipedia these are the most common effects of technology to the lifestyle of people:

1. The rise of a leisure class
2. A more informed society,which can make quicker responses to events and trends
3. Sets the stage for more complex learning tasks
4. Increases multi-tasking (although this may not be simplifying)
5. Global networking
6. Creates denser social circles
7. Cheaper prices
8. Greater specialization in jobs
9. Pollution is a serious problem in a technologically advanced society
10. The increase in transportation technology has brought congestion in some areas
11. Technicism
12. New forms of danger existing as a consequence of new forms of technology
13. New forms of entertainment could have possible social effects on areas such as academic performance
14. Increased probability of some diseases and disorders, such as obesity
15. Social separation of singular human interaction.
16. Structural unemployment
17. Anthropocentric climate change

Technology has brought forth many advantages and disadvantages to human lives these effects change the way we see life and the way we live it. More and more people are now using the technology around us. Unlike before people now are not afraid of technology.

We all know that we are 10 years behind on the current technological advantages. This delay gives us a disadvantage in handling modern technology when in comes to experience and familiarization of the technology. Most of these technologies are only available overseas so without going outside the contry it is almost impossible to handle new technologies. This is why the goverment is having industry partners. Since the local schools can not give the experience that is needed on the real world students are sent to companis which are industry partners of the government. This way students are able to experience newer technologies and real world experience which can raise their skill level significantly.




Reference:
http://www.eduref.org/Resources/Educational_Technology/Effects_of_Technology.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_and_society
http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/280/soctechchange/soctech1.htm
http://hubpages.com/hub/Mass-Media-Influence-on-Society
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Agnes Galinato

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Sat Dec 27, 2008 5:52 pm

Technological Change in the Society and the strategies used in the Philippines to address the skills shortage in advanced technology sectors
Technology had become a trend to almost all aspect of the future nowadays. All had been conforming to how technology behaves. From the creation of new machines to the uses of micro gadgets that are now gaining recognition to the population. As far as technology is concerned, almost all new created and establish things are in line with how technology affects it. Traditional ways of doing things are now beginning and slowly diminishing as new improved ways are starting to emerge. Even from the start of studying technology there are some downsides to its benefits. Technology is always viewed as a two way thing, giving benefits to the people and on the other side creates undesirable effect to the society as well as to the environment. Society today can be differentiate automatically to the way it looks and feel way back many years ago. There are many aspects and fields to which technology had affect the way people lived. From everyday living to political, social, economical and ethical issues of human beings. People had change greatly as technology had also been improving. All of which how men are doing their works is also where the application of technology is functional. It is because technology is improving to help and address the needs of people in their application, whether to make work easier or to take pleasure and bliss out of the product from technology. If all would be enumerated to discuss all the effects of technology to how society now changes would have a long list of items. People are now discovering things that are to address their needs. Even communication is now very effective that distance is not an issue anymore. Even of greater distance, many people are able to be in touch with each other. Exchange of information and business is also possible even without buildings or any big stores to establish commerce.
Talking about society, it is conveys almost all parts of the community, individualism to groups of people and how they cooperate and live with each other. Through the development of technology many side of how people live also alleviate in a very great pace. Here are some things to which technology are affecting the community the greatest.
Communication
Communication had been developing even in the earlier days by the use of telephone and the use of radio and telegraph in the purpose of exchanging messages to distant places. Today, the population have telephones as a means of necessity. All have this kind of gadget to be able to be in touch and be connected 24/7 to the world. Cellular phones are also now very effective and efficient not just as an accessory but as a guide to everyday living of people. There are many applications that could be installed into this small gadget that could give many uses. Example of these applications is having a dictionary in the phone which is very helpful as guide, and also the conversion of many measurements.
Lifestyle
People are greatly affected to the progress of technology that even everyone’s lifestyle also changes. People live differently to how they are used to in the past years. When technology is very reachable and human beings are very much willing to adapt this kind of technology, change is not a very impossible path. Technology had greatly improved the way people are living. It develops the standard of living. Every action of men correspond a specific machine that could help men one way or another. Examples of these are computers to which people are doing almost the electronic works. For leisure times, as also discussed in our Future Technology subject, entertainment concerning the gaming console is of now in high definition that it is almost like life like that you can easily be addicted to it. The music industry is also in greater pace in development. More and more develop machines are now more capable of handling greater amount of data in terms of music files. Gadgets are also handling many features like having a screen for viewing the music video.
Technology also affects people in many different ways. Example of this is how people work. Before, many businesses are doing most of its transactions using only paper to list the day to day operations as well as the billings. Systems are now being developed and highly utilized by businesses to make their processes more effective than the traditional ways of doing it.
Doing business is also possible even if not having a physical presentation. Anyone can transact processes online as long as he or she has a credit card or digital money. The web offers many things that one could possibly imagine, from business to advertising and also to communication and gaming. Businesses consist of buying things online and selling products. Advertising also are in line to the businesses. Anyone can also book flights through the use of the internet. You can also have a reservation in a hotel even without being there.
Learning had been also in the verge of fully developing the use of technology by having its e-learning strategy. More and more students are now having forums and discussion using the internet. Classes are having their learning in the web. It is not necessary to be physically present in the classroom to be said you are doing great in school. This is also another way to which we can say that technology had greatly affect the way the society behaves nowadays. Because of the changes that are brought about by technology, people are conforming to it to be able to stay in way with how technology is moving.
Because technology has an immense effect to the population, people who are knowledgeable are also necessary to be able to drive the technology in advancement. People should be able to know how to deal with this kind of industry so that the Filipinos would not rely on the help of other foreign developers. As observed there are small numbers of individuals who are engage in this kind of industry. Only little part of the incoming freshmen in college is in the Computing department. And if they are in the Technology department, most of the subjects are not in line with the demands of the market. Since businesses walks hand in hand with technology, there are also a great demand for people that could sustain the balance in having technology to be effective in the Philippines. Technological skills are now having its shortage that Filipinos must study it to be able to cope up with its demand. The government must give way to new proceeding to address these skill shortages.

Cause of Skill Shortage is Complex

Skill shortages could be traced back to the faulty educational system, myopic policy of labor export and pervasive technical change.

There is a study researched by the Department of Labor and Employment which cited that educational flaws stemmed up from poor curriculum, inadequate teacher's training, and low public and private investment in education. The policy emphasis of broadening access to education resulted to sacrificing quality as resource requirements became dispersed. Mismatches between industry requirements and educational preparation of new entrants to the labor force also exist.


The policy of encouraging the export of labor also contributed to the skill shortage. The study opined that the task of dealing with skill shortage is less urgent compared to the malaise of labor surplus.

Of course with fast-changing technologies demand for new skills would render some existing skills obsolete.

There are several ways by which Multinational Corporations in the Philippines deal with the problems of skill deficiencies and shortages. The most common ones are expatriation, recruitment, job outsourcing and training.

1. Expatriation. Results revealed that hiring expatriates in filling vacancies in MNCs is seldom done. Of the surveyed MNCs only 17 percent of managers and less than 1 percent of professional and technical staff are expatriates. The reasons being are the large base of employment hopefuls and the labor market restrictions on the employment of foreigners in the country.
2. Recruitment. Notwithstanding the large pool of applicants, the MNCs still experienced the lack of qualified applicants. Thus, they are employing various modes of recruitment to ensure the competitiveness of the selection process.
3. Job Contracting. More than four-fifths of the Philippine sample were found to outsourced one or several tasks. The most commonly outsourced tasks are those that would require general skills such as maintenance, security and clerical. The main motivation by MNCs for job contracting is to keep its permanent staff lean but mean and for greater flexibility. Multinationals tend to maintain permanent platilla position for firm-specific skills.
4. Training. Sample MNCs indicated that high proportion of employees in all ranks has been exposed to various forms of training whether internal or external to the company as a means of correcting skill deficiencies. Manufacturing firms located in the Philippines tend to spend higher training expenditures compared to Malaysia but lower when compared to those situated in Indonesia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. Training expenditures for business and services firms were found to be lesser in Indonesia and Malaysia but greater in Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand as compared to the Philippines.

Reference:
http://www.dole.gov.ph/news/details.asp?id=N000000764
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_and_society
http://www.dole.gov.ph/news/details.asp?id=N000002261
http://www.tesda.gov.ph/page.asp?rootID=4&sID=154&pID=34
http://www.practicalaction.org/?id=technology_in_society
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Romena Kalile Sante

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Mon Dec 29, 2008 9:09 pm

The technology which surrounds almost everyone in the modern society, affects both work and leisure activities. Technology contains information that many would rather it did not have. It influences minds in good and bad ways, and it allows people to share information which they would otherwise not be able to attain. Even if a person does not own a computer or have credit cards, there is information on a computer somewhere about everyone. The technology which is just now beginning to be manipulated and harnessed is affecting the minds of small children and adolescents in ways that could be harmful. It is affecting our immediate future. It also gives another form of communication and exchange of information which was not available before, information that is both good and bad.

Technology is one of the principal driving forces of the future; it is transforming our lives and shaping our future at rates unprecedented in history, with profound implications which we can't even begin to see or understand.

Many different elements affect how satisfied we are with our lives. The impact of technology on these elements can change how safe, healthy and happy people feel. Throughout history, people have looked for better ways to meet their needs and to satisfy their expectations. Technology has improved the way people feed, clothe and shelter themselves. Technology has also changed other aspects of everyday life, such as health care, education, job satisfaction, and leisure time activities.

People have used technology since they first chipped stone blades to improve their hunting. Yet some people call the current age the "Technological Age" because of society's dependence on technology. For the first time in human history, almost all the goods and services people use depend on technology. The products of technology are available to almost everyone in society. The economy of a country influences how the people of the county live. Technology is often considered the key to a nation's economic growth. Most economists would say that it is one of the factors in economic growth, but they would probably disagree about its importance.

Many economists think that if technology sparks growth in one sector of the economy in the form of increased productivity, growth will also occur in other sectors of the economy. Jobs may be lost in one industry, such as agriculture but new jobs may emerge in other sectors of the economy. There may be more jobs or, in some case, completely new kinds of jobs. Technology may also be used to solve urgent problems. Our growing population is using up infinite supplies of natural resources. Innovations in technology can allow for more efficient use of limited or scarce resources. More products might be made from the same amount of raw material using new techniques.


According to Wikipedia, in terms of the people's lifestyle, technology affects the society in both ways. It simplifies life and at the same time it complicates our life.

In many ways, technology simplifies life.

  • The rise of a leisure class
  • A more informed society,which can make quicker responses to events and trends
  • Sets the stage for more complex learning tasks
  • Increases multi-tasking (although this may not be simplifying)
  • Global networking
  • Creates denser social circles
  • Cheaper prices
  • Greater specialization in jobs


In other ways, technology complicates life.

  • Pollution is a serious problem in a technologically advanced society (from acid rain to Chernobyl and Bhopal)
  • The increase in transportation technology has brought congestion in some areas
  • Technicism (although this may not be complicating)
  • New forms of danger existing as a consequence of new forms of technology, such as the first generation of nuclear reactors
  • New forms of entertainment, such as video games and Internet access could have possible social effects on areas such as academic performance
  • Increased probability of some diseases and disorders, such as obesity
  • Social separation of singular human interaction. Technology has increased the need to talk to more people faster.
  • Structural unemployment
  • Anthropocentric climate change


Philippines Strategies in addressing the Skill Shortage in Advanced Technology Sectors

The IT Skill Shortage Issues

“A first quarter 2008 study conducted by XMG, a global ICT research and advisory think tank, of leading offshoring countries in Asia that include China, India, Malaysia and the Philippines show that the average growth of the IT labor pool in the Philippines for the past 5 years rests at 10% and is forecasted to grow by another 3% in the next 2 to 3 years.”Despite the steady increase of the IT labor pool, the study revealed however an insufficient labor pool to sustain the total ICT growth in the Philippines which is projected to grow by 30 to 35% FTE year-on-year through 2010. Majority of fresh talents will be sourced from Metro Manila making up 22% of the estimated fifty to sixty thousand graduates each year. According to XMG statistician Benedict Dormitorio, "There is a clear need to establish additional training institutions and ladderized degree programs by existing universities to boost the dwindling talent supply due to the growth of the Philippine offshoring industry and the migration of IT skilled workforce to countries such as the United States, Singapore, Canada, the Middle East and Europe". The XMG analyst also stressed the importance of ensuring curriculum alignment of educational institutions with the current market needs of the industry through close consultation with ICT companies and organizations.

The Strategies

APEC believes that skill shortages can constrain the expansion of output in the short-term and limit the possibility of diversifying productive structure in the long-term. APEC member economies expressed concern that the growth and development opportunities afforded by liberalization may be jeopardized by the gap between the skills needed by industry and the output of educational and training institutions.
In view of this, APEC spearheaded a study in 2001 focused on Multinational Corporations in selected economies. The research aimed to assess the nature and extent of skill shortages and training needs in eight selected APEC economies by focusing on the experiences of multinational corporations in four industries--manufacturing, banking and finance, insurance and business services. They found out that the firms were found out to experience recruitment difficulties for managers and professionals than recruiting clerical, sales, services and production personnel. The study results showed that looking for non-technical workers is simpler as they can be easily trained even if they are skills deficient upon entry. Recruitment for technical positions is another case as there are minimum levels of competencies required of the workers at the time of job entry. Hence firms tend to exercise greater selectivity. Though, they found out there a big skill deficiency here in the Philippines, they found ways to deals with the problems in skill shortages and deficiencies. Here are the following:

1.Expatriation. Results revealed that hiring expatriates in filling vacancies in MNCs is seldom done. Of the surveyed MNCs only 17 percent of managers and less than 1 percent of professional and technical staff are expatriates. The reasons being are the large base of employment hopefuls and the labor market restrictions on the employment of foreigners in the country.

2.Recruitment. Notwithstanding the large pool of applicants, the MNCs still experienced the lack of qualified applicants. Thus, they are employing various modes of recruitment to ensure the competitiveness of the selection process.

3.Job Contracting. More than four-fifths of the Philippine sample were found to outsourced one or several tasks. The most commonly outsourced tasks are those that would require general skills such as maintenance, security and clerical. The main motivation by MNCs for job contracting is to keep its permanent staff lean but mean and for greater flexibility. Multinationals tend to maintain permanent platilla position for firm-specific skills.

4.Training. Sample MNCs indicated that high proportion of employees in all ranks has been exposed to various forms of training whether internal or external to the company as a means of correcting skill deficiencies. Manufacturing firms located in the Philippines tend to spend higher training expenditures compared to Malaysia but lower when compared to those situated in Indonesia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. Training expenditures for business and services firms were found to be lesser in Indonesia and Malaysia but greater in Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand as compared to the Philippines.

The XMG study mentioned that, "In order to minimize paralysis on critical operations and sustain growth, companies must extend their recruitment reach, improve their skill development pathways, enrich retention and provide hot skills training on the existing talents in the organization to avoid high additional cost components associated with these skill areas."

Technology both have the negative and positive impacts to the society. The impacts also brought to the society to open some opportunity to have jobs and use the skill of Information Technologies professionals. However, the Philippines faces skill deficiencies and shortages in the sector of Advanced Technology. In order to solve this, some sectors made studies to found some strategies to solve this issues. Moreover, the government must of course support this strategies to help both the society and our economy,


http://www.tesda.gov.ph/page.asp?rootID=4&sID=154&pID=34
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_and_society
http://www.infoworld.com/news/feeds/08/04/04/Critical-skills-in-the-Philippines-face-shortage.html
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Eric Ibasco

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Mon Dec 29, 2008 9:35 pm

Technology in old time through the present is become a big help to us ever since it is just a simple one to high thing, that technology is vastly grow and harder to stop or no idea to stop because every time the human have a question to his mind about the environment and the quality of life, technology is still coming to our each life. Having a technology is having an impact or effect also to us whether in good to bad but mostly for the people who are experiencing the certain technology that they always talk about the positive effects of technology, on how the technology has brought or make their life become fast and easy but some times this good effects have also give a bad face, like making or bringing the people into lazy but not in all over area or situation. And by talking about the technology on what field that technology contributes a lot to us is in the field of communication, which is the Internet and Cellular, phone that slowly replacing the traditional way likes the letter. Internet today is become the new information resources because of the fast update and convenient like the current events in every place of the world that it so fast to know and read because of the global communication but having this kind of technology which is the Internet can also give an addiction just like the drugs because of the large amount of time and over exposure through the compute screen. So by having this technology we achieve there are also some consequences and an effects whether in positive or negative that changing our environment and of course our society. And these are the following effects that the technology can or gave already to our society.

Time

Before the computer went to our each home or in our each life because we order the latest one, people is much more active on outdoor activities like playing basketball with your neighbors or even walking outside just to go out only by just skipping the house works but now people who are affected by the technology especially the students who taking computer relation like me are now like on indoor activities. Activities in facing the large screen monitor, that almost of your time is been give to the computer hour especially the people who had a internet connection that they spend their big amount of time in reading manga or article (just like me), video streaming, listening some music or just blog hopping someone but some times they activities can give also a good effects because who always update and catch up with the latest. That you almost felt no time to sleep or rest because it feels like the 24 hours is like a few hours. That in the end the amount of time in using the computer is much bigger than the old ones.

Friends

Having friends in the old day is not very easy to be done because of lots of factor to make in order to know his/her good personality because that ways we know if he/she really a true friends but when the technology came especially the instant messenger, electronic mail or even the friend community site we can easily make or approved their request to become their friend and yes it is a good personality you can show to them but still becoming a friend with just a clicked of a button is still not completely good idea. And the true essence of friend on online is not very great because we can say that he/she friend of mine even seeing the face or hearing the voice, but the question is are they your friend that can help you out or give you a smile.

Communication

The technology of Internet and computer are become the popular tool or method in communication that almost the simple to hard way of communication can totally work it out. But being fast and easy to communicate some times the sense or expression of a certain person is also fading just like the vocal inflection, body language and facial expression. And another thing that affecting the society is the how people communicate like typing the word or sentence because by become lazy or just to type in fast the spelling and grammar is become hard to read (also the cell phone text) that you must first think before replying the user.

Health

Health with the partner of the technology is also the new issues that doctor are worrying for. Because in the old time people are much prefer a big and good muscled body in order to them to get a good work because manpower is their first priority. But it the end again in our time today, this belief or the old common thing on having a strong body is now replacing with a big and a large of veins in the head, that in order to have a good job you must have also a good mind. And because of this new thing to do, our body now is the one suffer and this bad effect is to become an obese person because of lack of exercise, that you totally eat food and drink in front of the computer and missing to take rest or the worst missing to take a bath.

And for this other idea of what are the effects that the technological in our society that the technology we have is based and taken from David Terr in PresidentPolls2008.com.

Dangers of Technology

Although I think the overall effect of technology is good, there are clearly dangers and drawbacks. Every new technology breeds unanticipated or unwanted side effects. For instance, the Industrial Revolution, while reducing manual labor in the long run, had and still has much negative consequence, such as pollution, child labor, and sweatshop conditions.

Technology Created Starvation

Also, the Green Revolution of the 40s, 50s, and 60s, while allowing increased agricultural production in developing countries, also led to a population explosion in those countries, creating more starvation. New technologies are usually required to solve the problems created by older ones.

Technology Used for Good and Evil

Technology, like just about everything else, can either be used for good or for evil. I tend to think that certain technologies are designed more for good and others more for evil. For instance, I think few people would dispute that electricity has been beneficial to mankind. But I tend to think that most weapons have had an overall negative influence on society, though I'm sure that many would disagree.

Afraid of New Technologies

People tend to be afraid of new technologies, though once they become widely used, the fear subsides. Because many science fiction stories have been written based on the theme of man versus machine, expressing concern about the dangers of artificial intelligence going awry, though this concern has seemingly subsided since the advent of the personal computer.

Nuclear Power

Interestingly, public concerns about nuclear power have gone the other way though. When nuclear power was first developed, most people embraced the new technology until they became more aware of the potential hazards.

And for our own country which is the Philippine the effects of technology is also created a big impact in terms of the society and works or jobs. Because having or implementing a latest or an advanced technology to a certain place, the changes of the place is also big. Philippines today are now creating or making some strategies to use in order fill the information technology shortage. That according to Joel Pinaroc, ZDNet Asia, study shows that Information Technology skills shortage that the Philippines that must to work in, is in the area of programming. Because the study identified the skills shortage in Python, VBScript, Perl, XML and VB.net programmers in the Philippines, due to low incident count coming from the general Information Technology population. In the field of programming and enterprise applications, the study noted that skills in SAS, SAP, Lotus Notes and MySQL will be increasingly difficult to source, and companies must be prepared to pay a premium price to recruit professionals with these skills. The study further emphasized a shortage of networking skills, particularly those in network administration. That the strategies must do is to establish additional training institutions and ladderized degree programs offered by existing universities to boost the dwindling talent supply, due to the growth of the Philippine off shoring industry and migration of Information Technology skilled workforce to countries. That the analyst also stressed the importance of ensuring curriculum alignment of educational institutions with current market needs through close consultation with Information Technology companies and organizations. Because with the increasing demand for Information Technology professionals today, companies should be aware of the situation and align their strategies to mitigate risk coming from the labor market. That In order to minimize paralysis on critical operations and sustain growth, companies must extend their recruitment reach and improve efforts in skills development. They should also enrich retention and provide "hot skills" training for existing talents in the organization to avoid high additional cost components associated with these skill areas.



Reference:
http://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/25885.html
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/what-is-the-impact-of-technology-on-our-society.html
http://home.xnet.com/~ansible/graves.hist.html
http://www.presidentpolls2008.com/Philosophy/effects-of-technology-on-society.html
http://forevergeek.com/articles/how_technology_is_destroying_society.php
http://www.zdnetasia.com/news/business/0,39044229,62039776,00.htm
http://www.mb.com.ph/issues/2008/04/10/TECH20080410121480.html
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NTN/is_/ai_108722607
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chris jan cane

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Wed Dec 31, 2008 12:25 pm

Well, what can I say about technology, it is apart of us whether we like it or not. It helps us in our day to day living. It makes our daily chores much easy to do. Truly technology influence our live very much. According to “baby blue” of http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080302235936AAhGwdn that Technological advancement in the Philippines does not necessarily threaten people's jobs, as technology creates many jobs, but in other sectors. The main threat of technological advancement is to the employment of those people who are not educated enough to catch up with the advancement as technology requires some form of specialization.
Here are some advances that I have observed.
Automation/computerization of government processes (ie. fingerprint scanning for elections, applications for NSO certificates (online na!), applications for passports and visas) have made them faster and much more efficient and convenient.
Advances in telecommunications have allowed foreign companies to outsource transcriptionist jobs, call centers, etc These also allow electronic money transfer.
Advances in computers and telecom are also allowing scientific researches in the Philippines access to their colleagues from other countries, while at the same time makes up-to-date information available to the general public.
Here are some places where technology has not yet helped.
Agriculture. Filipino farmers are not competitive because of lack of technology.
Certain government bureaucracies. There are still a large number of procedures in the government that are not automated. Records are also not encoded/digitized making records keeping and retrieval difficult and Infrastructure.
We can say that Philippine it industry has gone quite a distance. But according to www.zdnetasia.com/news/business/0,39044229,62039776,00.htm that PHILIPPINES--The local IT industry is facing a shortage of skilled manpower despite a steady increase in the country's IT labor pool, shows a new study by XMG. According to the Canada-based research firm, the average growth of IT labor in the Philippines stood at 10 percent in the last 10 years and is predicted to grow at a "steady" 3 percent in the next five years. Despite the increase, the XMG study revealed an insufficient skilled labor pool to sustain the country's total IT growth, which is projected to accelerate by 30 percent to 35 percent year-on-year through 2010. The study identified the skills shortage in Python, VBScript, Perl, XML and VB.net programmers in the Philippines, due to low incident count coming from the general IT population. In the field of programming and enterprise applications, the study noted that skills in SAS, SAP, Lotus Notes and MySQL will be increasingly difficult to source, and companies must be prepared to pay a premium price to recruit professionals with these skills. The study further emphasized a shortage of networking skills, particularly those in network administration. The majority of fresh talents in the country will be sourced from Metro Manila, making up 22 percent of the estimated 50,000 to 60,000 graduates each year, according to XMG. "There is a clear need to establish additional training institutions and ladderized degree programs [offered] by existing universities to boost the dwindling talent supply, due to the growth of the Philippine offshoring industry and migration of IT skilled workforce to countries such as the United States, Singapore, Canada, the Middle East and Europe," XMG statistician Benedict Dormitorio said. The analyst also stressed the importance of ensuring curriculum alignment of educational institutions with current market needs through close consultation with IT companies and organizations. XMG chief analyst Lauro Vives said: "With the increasing demand for IT professionals today, companies should be aware of the situation and align their strategies to mitigate risk coming from the labor market." In order to minimize paralysis on critical operations and sustain growth, companies must extend their recruitment reach and improve efforts in skills development. They should also enrich retention and provide "hot skills" training for existing talents in the organization to avoid high additional cost components associated with these skill areas, XMG said. One of the post in http://www.power-technology.com/features/feature1271/ about the problem of skill shortage This lack of engineers can in no way be attributed to the renewables sector. Since the 1980s, large-scale automation within all industries has led to a steady decline in the number of students taking up engineering, scientific and technical courses, and a reduction in the number of available apprenticeships.With the increasing demand for skills in the renewable energy sector coming at a time when the industry is experiencing an ageing workforce, the stakes are high. Even though a younger generation is now starting to realise the potential for career opportunities in this area, the speed of sector growth has meant a shortage of immediate skills, slowing down the rate of investment in new projects.
An article about the bpo in http://www.cw.com.hk/article.php?id_article=2110 state that Major stakeholders in the Philippines' business process outsourcing (BPO) market recently forged an agreement to address the acute labor shortage plaguing the services sector.Representatives of the Business Processing Association of the Philippines (BPA/P), Commission on Information and Communications Technology (CICT) and IBM Philippines signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to help develop a relevant curriculum to ensure that the products of the country's colleges and universities can be absorbed by the outsourcing industry.The BPA/P, which is an umbrella organization of the BPO players in the country, was represented by their chief executive officer Oscar Sañez while the CICT was represented by its chairman Ray Anthony Roxas-Chua. IBM was represented by its president and general manager James Velasquez.Under the MOU, the BPA/P has committed to bring industry advice in developing the curriculum.Sañez said the Philippines has the potential to participate in the trillion-dollar global services sector if only the skills preparation in the schools can be addressed now.The local BPO industry has been suffering from a shortage of qualified human resources desperately needed to compete globally where bigger players such as the United States, India and China are considered as the competitors.For instance, among the skills sets seriously needed by the call center industry, which comprises bulk of the BPO business in the country, is English proficiency. The industry has somewhat addressed this by developing a bridging program where so-called "near hires" are trained further in training institutions.But BPO industry is also moving to higher value-added BPO services such as back office automation, accounting and financial analysis, and software development, to name a few. In moving up the services value chain, the BPO industry has noted the need for further skills development in the colleges and universities."The kind of skills required now by industry requires a lot more technical as well as management skills, particularly this service science management," said Sañez.
Service science management and engineering (SSME) is a new multidisciplinary discipline aimed at updating the current skills sets of the products of today's educational institutions. It involves the fields of computer science, operations research, industrial engineering, business strategy, management sciences, and social and legal sciences.It was a concept formulated by IBM Corporation as early as three years ago. Through its Philippine office, it is advocating that such approach be adapted by the Philippine educational institutions.Velasquez said updating the current curriculum to follow the SSME approach will produce "T-shaped" professionals among the products of the Philippine educational system. A "T-shaped" professional has an expertise in a particular discipline, such as engineering, but also has knowledge of related disciplines, such as management, to help the professional work in industry.Velasquez said advocating for SSME and its participation in the MOU is an offshoot of the National Innovation Summit last year where the government and industry from various sectors have agreed to promote a culture of national innovation in the country.On the part of the government, Roxas-Chua said the CICT will coordinate with the Commission on Higher Education, and colleges and universities to learn how to incorporate SSME in their curricula.In forging a partnership with BPA/P and IBM Philippines, Roxas-Chua said "the government recognizes the importance of the offshoring and outsourcing industry in terms of job creation and its contribution to the economy.""The government is focused on riding the industry forward," he said. "The key is to develop the talent [needed by industry]."
There are suggested ways to solve or at least minimized the deficiency of thecnological advancements given by http://www.tesda.gov.ph/page.asp?rootID=4&sID=154&pID=34 these are Expatriation. Results revealed that hiring expatriates in filling vacancies in MNCs is seldom done. Of the surveyed MNCs only 17 percent of managers and less than 1 percent of professional and technical staff are expatriates. The reasons being are the large base of employment hopefuls and the labor market restrictions on the employment of foreigners in the country.
Recruitment. Notwithstanding the large pool of applicants, the MNCs still experienced the lack of qualified applicants. Thus, they are employing various modes of recruitment to ensure the competitiveness of the selection process.
Job Contracting. More than four-fifths of the Philippine sample were found to outsourced one or several tasks. The most commonly outsourced tasks are those that would require general skills such as maintenance, security and clerical. The main motivation by MNCs for job contracting is to keep its permanent staff lean but mean and for greater flexibility. Multinationals tend to maintain permanent platilla position for firm-specific skills.
Training. Sample MNCs indicated that high proportion of employees in all ranks has been exposed to various forms of training whether internal or external to the company as a means of correcting skill deficiencies. Manufacturing firms located in the Philippines tend to spend higher training expenditures compared to Malaysia but lower when compared to those situated in Indonesia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. Training expenditures for business and services firms were found to be lesser in Indonesia and Malaysia but greater in Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand as compared to the Philippines.
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Miah Mae C. Bernaldo

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Thu Jan 01, 2009 8:52 am

Technology indeed plays a big role in our society, not only because it influences us individually and also our society. Technology is already part our daily life and without it our living would not be like what we have now. After surfing the net for some effects of technologies I have found out an article about the positive effects of technology on our society. The buzzle.com lists some technologies that have positive effects on our society and those are the automobile technology which includes the evolution from mechanical scooters to automated aircrafts. During the old days animals are the only forms of transportation. Then the creation of bicycles which further evolves to scooters and motor bikes and cars, which is an example technology for land transportation. Next are the machines which have automated many of the crucial industrial processes. These technologies are taking up many of the mundane jobs that were once executed by human workers. Another is the computer technology which has changed the face of the world. Computers can perform many tasks such as storing, organizing and managing huge amounts of data. In line with this is the internet which has brought an important positive change to the entertainment and advertising industry. Advertisements can reach the masses within seconds over the Internet. The entertainment media has progressed only because of the advancements in technology. Furthermore, technologies also affect the economy in our society. “Technology has made the economy of the world climb its highest peaks, which would have been completely disoriented with increasing population and work load over the time,” Aside from these good effects technology had brought us, there are also some drawbacks with the evolution of these technologies. “The most controversial technological drawback is the the technology of the inventions of the arms and ammunitions. From the very first primitive arrows to the latest atomic bomb, all are a result of technological inventions. These products have not only caused widespread massacre and loss of innocent lives but also life long tragedies such as the atomic bomb blasts in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Man has therefore invented a destruction solution for himself,” according to an article on hudtech.net.

In this modern age, technologies had become more increasingly in demand. Aside from helping us make our work easier, these new technologies are also part in our leisure activities. Below are the lists of some technological affects to us and to our society.
• Faster communication among others
With the use of the new technologies such as cell phones, telephones and internet we can easily communicate to other person anytime and anywhere.

• New methods of learning
This new technologies also provides us tools and new methods of learning. Internet is most widely source information these days. With a simple click, we can now access to many different activities provided on the internet and discover new things we haven’t known before. Computers also are now a tool in education. There is no institutions today that do not have a computer in. From the big universities to the small one, each of them has at least one unit of computer in the campus.

• Trendy with the modern technologies
Many persons are buying and new technologies, such as cell phones, iPod, digital camera, and other multimedia player not just because it is a part of our leisure activities but also to be trendy in our modern society.

• Increase of energy consumption
Because more and more technologies are present in our house, increase of energy consumption is linked with this.

• Comfort in our lives
A new technology also makes our living more comfortable. The evolution of transportation technology for example, because of these technologies we can already travel from one place to another in less time compared before.

Here in the Philippines we also experience those negative and positive effects of technologies. One of the biggest problems of our country is the skills shortage. In relation to technologies, many are hoping that these technologies could help us in providing solutions to this problem. I have found out an article talking about the IT skills shortage in the Philippines and according to apecdoc.org that a Canada-based research firm held that the average growth of IT labor in the Philippines stood at 10 percent in the last 10 years and is predicted that it would grow steadily at 3 percent in the next five years. The study identified that the skills shortage in Python, VBScript, Perl, XMLi and VB.net programmers in the Philippines which is due to the low incident count coming from the general IT population. And the study also shows that it would be increasingly difficult to source with the skills in SAS, SAP, Lotus Notes and MySQL. The Philippine government and other sectors are now helping out to in finding some solutions to these problems. In order to solve skill shortage in the Philippines one solution for this is through trainings and education. Many companies are now extending their recruitment and training in order to reduce the IT skills shortage in the country. The IBM for example is offering its IT Education Services which will help create a competitive advantage by improving the performance of the employees. Through this kind of training IBM believe that this will reduce the IT skills shortage.

Another factor for this skills shortage in the Philippines is unemployment. Many have graduate college but got no job after the graduation. Because of the lack of job opportunities in the country many skilled Filipinos are forced to migrate to other countries and work abroad. And to address the issue of unemployment in the country, the government is already making some actions to solve this problem. Initially, the government has invited several investors to invest in the Philippines and to give Filipinos a good job in their own country. It is good to know that because of that the percentage of unemployed Filipinos have fallen down. But sometimes many Filipinos have ended up with underemployment. Many have been hired but have not get the job that suite their skills. The article “Round pegs for round holes” at eccp.com highlighted a story about underemployment.

[i]There is this story about a fresh college graduate hired by a supermarket. On his first day at work, the graduate was greeted by the manager who gave him a broom and said: "Here, start sweeping."

"But I’m a college graduate!" protested the young man.

"Oh, I’m sorry. I forgot about that. Here, I’ll show you how," said the manager.
[/i]

We can’t deny that many Filipinos have been hired but does not match their skills. They have been forced to apply for a job even though the job is not match to them. Mostly skilled Filipinos ended up working in call centers right now. And according to a study there is less than 12,000 applicants on the average are hired as call center agents every year. Even professionals who have been working abroad as an Overseas Filipino Worker ended up underemployed. Some Professionals such as teachers apply for a work abroad and get a job as a factory worker. It is better to be underemployed than to be unemployed but obviously there is less job satisfaction in being underemployed.

To address this issue the ECCP, one of the organizers of the Foreign Chambers Employment Expo have held a job fair that which also supports the ECCP’s “Human Capital Building Program” will help Filipinos find the job and to help match more Filipinos with the appropriate jobs.

“ECCP is not only engaged in training but also in addressing the mismatch between education and jobs. ECCP brings the private sector closer to training/academic institutions and supports new industries that are aligned with the competitive skills of Filipinos.”

“ECCP seeks to develop various channels to deliver the skills necessary to support industry growth especially in emerging business sectors such as BPO. Such channels focus on training and business services that effectively generate and deliver the important skills over the short term period. “

The training services held by ECCP includes management and leadership training, technical skills training, dual education and internship by the private sector. Similarly, those job seekers who have fallen short of the requirements set by business process outsourcing companies and other critical industries are encouraged to apply for the PGMA Training for Work Scholarship program. According to transcription.mixph.com, the people who are qualified to avail the program are the ‘near hires’ or job seekers who were not able to fully meet the skills requirements of the BPO sector and other industries experiencing skills shortage. They are then be given a scholarship certificate and endorsed to a TESDA.
Currently, many organizations like TESDA train many Filipinos and according to eccp.com that many organizations have train about 40,000 students for mainly technical jobs annually. And it is good to know that they are willing to further expand the short and mid-term training if industry clearly identifies their requirements and is willing to contribute to this endeavor

Reference :
1. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/positive-effects-of-technology-on-society.html
2. http://www.hudtech.net/Drawbacks-of-Technology%20.html
3. http://www.hudtech.net/How-can-Technology-effect-the-economy-of-any-country.html
4. http://www-304.ibm.com/jct03001c/services/learning/ites.wss/ph/en?pageType=page&contentID=a0000814
5. http://www.apecdoc.org/node/6356
6. http://www.ilo.org/global/About_the_ILO/Media_and_public_information/Press_releases/lang--en/WCMS_008083/index.htm
7. http://transcription.mixph.com/medical-transcription-training-for-work-scholarship/
8. http://www.eccp.com/infocus.php?id=307
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Ariane Joy B. Ang

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Fri Jan 02, 2009 3:04 am

Technology has long existed and we can’t deny the fact that people has been so dependent to it until it became very prominent already. Due to the remarkable benefits the technology has brought to humans, its effects were almost ignored by the people – both environmental and societal effects. This ignorance by the people has caused imbalance between society and technology. These effects the technology has brought to us are more seemingly bad effects than good ones. Some of the bad effects the technology has brought to our environment are pollution, global warming, hazardous wastes, biodiversity loss, depletion of natural resources, and a lot more to mention.1 The technology has also brought a big change in our society, both good and bad effects, but this change causes us more harm than good. Thinking about the short-term benefits the technology offered to us, it is nothing compared to the long way coming problems to our society.

Effects of Technological Change in our Society

According to the International Labor Organization, there have been emerging gender issues in the Asia Pacific region about the effects of the technological change. These are the list of the effects of the technological change about genders issues:
1. Employment opportunities for women can increase where technology makes possible out-sourcing and sub-contracting.
Job opportunities for women can possibly increase in industries where
jobs range greatly. Women can do a lot more in printing and publishing jobs to clothing as well as in telework, electronic homework, etc. But the threat arises when there would be lot of advancements to be done in robotics, particularly in assembly type manufacturing where men are thought as the experts in that field.
2. Skill and job structures change with the introduction of modern technologies in industrial enterprises.
Due to a lot of innovations happening to technology, jobs also require
some changes like rotation or expansion of jobs. Women are found to be more flexible but technically semi-skilled workers, but require only less training. Men are found to be more technically skilled and high-status workers than women are, and it is said that there have been job, employment, and income insecurities due to the perception the society has on both genders.
3. Technological innovations imply changing skill requirements, and it is here that women are most likely to be displaced in favor of men.
Because of the society’s perception to the skills of women, they are to be
more likely deployed than men. Much more that technology advances even more nowadays, which means more deployment for women in many fields for they are though of as just technically semi-skilled workers when it comes to new technologies.
4. Rapid advances in technology also influence the impact of globalization on women workers.
Philippines is one of the new avenues of employment for women. But
these jobs for women such as data entry, keyboarding, and clerical jobs offer only low wages, minimal opportunities for advancement, and little development of skills.
5. Technological developments can also carve away the comparative advantages of women’s cheap physical labor.
Women’s said “cheap physical labor” could affect them a lot now that
technology has more advancement than ever, and is accounted for falling proportion of the workforce.

In short, these are just gender issues were most issues come from just our own thinking discriminating women, or a culture and belief from the past that women must stay in the house and do the house chores while men do the rest.

Other effects:
6. Child Labor
Since technology will do most of the job, it is very possible that a child
will be hired to do a little job since it won’t be hard for them anymore to do it.
7. Lesser work for humans
Because of technologies, humans will do work not even half of the
technology that is expected to do. In movies, computer generated graphics could do most part in the movie or an AI may write a piece of novel or any kind of literature.
8. Destroys Simplicity
Humans depend on technology very much because when doing only
simple work we already wanted the aid of technology not thinking that we could do it ourselves. We also waste our time because of technology because when a machine fails to do something, we spend much time fixing the machine rather than work.
9. Greater risk
Many schools nowadays include in their curriculum some computer
lessons, not just basic computer lessons. That is why, even at early age graders are able to create amazing inventions and they are able to create tools for destruction. Technology also invites hackers and crackers to a new crime like robbing in bank through cracking their systems, or hacking important and private information from important organizations.

Despite these disadvantages that technology brings, we know technology also brought us good ones. In larger companies, they are able to increase their productions yielding greater outputs with lesser errors; thus, it improves our economy. When we use technology wisely we know we benefit from it a lot so we must moderate from using it. Today, technology advances much leaving human skills behind. Despite this fact, there are strategies used to address this skill shortage.

How can we say that a certain country has skill shortages in labor force? What does skill shortage means? According to the website SkillsInfo skill shortages exist when employers are unable to fill or have considerable difficulty in filling vacancies for an occupation, or specialized skill needs in the occupation, at current levels of remuneration and conditions of employment, and reasonably accessible location. Shortages are typically for specialized and experienced workers, and can coexist with relatively high overall unemployment in the occupation. An occupation may be assessed as in shortage even though not all specializations are in shortage. Occupations may be in shortage in some regions and not in others.

Sarosh Kuruvilla, author of the book Management in India: Trends and Transition, 2006, stated strategies used in these four vast Asian countries: Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, and India. These countries’ government policy goals include:
• political suppression of unions to keep labor costs down
• union restructuring
• restrictions on the subjects of collective bargaining
• changes in wage and overtime payment systems

To address skill shortages from APEC member countries, MNCs adopted various strategies to overcome this problem.
• Extent and source of expatriation/Sending expatriation
• Use of Regional Headquarter for staff training and development
• Out-sourcing various aspects of the operations

• The Philippines attended a conference 2008 State of Philippine Competitiveness National Conference: Philippines at the Crossroads of Competitiveness that was held at the Ort SMX Convention Center, Pasay City. The world scoreboard 2008 of the 55 economies was presented where Philippines was in rank 40 in terms of competitiveness, but it was emphasized in the conference that advancements in infrastructure (ranked 54th), education (52nd), and health care (44th) were also important.
• Retention practices keeping talented staffs intact and hot skills training for existing talents.
• Philippines has worked with an agreement to the British Columbia provincial government which aimed at reducing the shortage of skilled workers in B.C. where the British Columbia provincial government signed a memorandum of understanding last January 29, 2008.
• Philippines has worked with South Australia recruiting Filipino skilled workers to ease the pressure on employers, but rest assured that the recruitment provides protection, development, and skills upgrading of OFWs says DoLE Marianito Roque.
• The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conducted a study to assess the nature and extent of skill shortages and training needs focusing on four industries – manufacturing, banking and finance, insurance and business services.

References:

1.http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/mdtmanila/training/unit2/asiatech.htm
2.http://learning.berkeley.edu/cipolat/PDF/ISF60/2005/Student%20summaries/Volti.pdf
3.http://www.socyberty.com/Society/The-Social-Effects-of-Technology
4.http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Q6dpYXXPmuMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA169&dq=what+are+the+strategies+used+in+the+Philippines+to+address+the+skills+shortage+in+advanced+technology+sectors%3F&ots=ctmrQIhciK&sig=9UQPPpTIaemWY-IAJ834IOK3g4k#PPA172,M1
5.http://www.pecc.org/community/papers/hrd-yunlin-2002/CharlesSTAHL.DOC
6.http://www.kas.de/proj/home/events/69/1/veranstaltung_id-30906/index.html
7.http://www.hrmguide.net/canada/jobmarket/bc_skills_shortage.htm
8.http://www.gov.ph/news/default.asp?i=22888
9.http://www.skillsinfo.gov.au/skills/SkillsIssues/UnderstandingSkillShortages/
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Riza Eve Gador

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Fri Jan 09, 2009 12:01 am

Enumerate the effects of technological change in our society and describe and list strategies used in the Philippines to address the skills shortage in advanced technology sectors. (at least 1,500 words)


There are lots of good and bad effects of technological change in our society. But most of the effects of this are good. Just like what we always hear, that technology makes our life easier. Like for example in a company with workers, managers, president and others of course technology is a very big part of their career or to their business. For the workers, technology make their work easier and faster and don’t need for them to work very hard and heavy and it’s a very good effect for them, for the company owners if the their workers produced products or done their works fast they also earn money easily and faster, or in short they benefit from higher yields. In the road, or transportation, technology changing took a very big part too. Because as time passes by low technology has developed to high technology, and this helps a lot in our transportation, like for example the LRT, people don’t need to take many rides because with this they can go to their place in a single ride, and of course this thing makes the traffic easier. Traffic lights and other devices that are made by technology made good effects in our society.

If there is a good effect, there is also bad effects, but most of the bad effects are not being recognize by the people in the society, just like the global warming, not all of us know what causes this global warming, that don’t know that the technology which made our life easier makes our life shorter too. Electromagnetic field from the high technology gadgets can cause bad effects to our body and can bring us to death. Just compare to the Stone Age, where there are no technology existing, people live a hundred of years because there are no such things that will cause them to illness. But as you can notice, as time passes by, as technology is changing into high technology, the lives of the people become shorter; they got lucky if they can step into 50 years of age. Also technological change gives a lot of unemployed people. Since people was replaced by machine.


According to Tech Advisory Board (2008) here are some of good and bad effects in technological changes:
Technology has also brought a social change. The technological devices and other appliances have formed the major part of factories and industries. It has equally helped us in positive or negative way.
• If we talk about the positive effects then it has been the biggest help for the communication purposes. It has bridged the gap between far persons by providing the high tech fully featured mobile phones. These phones are an astonishing example of technology that we can do our office as well as our personal work with the help of durable and portable 3G mobile phones.
• Other important technological invention is computer and Internet. It is just with the help of it that we can share the data easily as well as communicate with others.
• The mp3 players and other electronic devices are the source of our entertainment as we can listen to our favorite songs on it.
But if we talk about its negative impact then there are various inventions that are proving wrong in our lives.
• The major effect occurred badly on our lives is the use of Internet. Though it provides us with the perfect knowledge and long distance communication but it is used for the unethical practices such as hacking, spamming and other criminal offense. Thus it is because of the Internet that cyber crimes are on high rise. Internet gambling has also a major effect on the people’s lives.
• Technology has also affected our lives just because of the introduction of artificial intelligent machines and gadgets. It is because of them that unemployment and thus crime is increasing in industries and other companies.
• Other disadvantage is that excessive use of machines in every field is resulting in under utilization of human brain. It is because of this man may lose his intellectual abilities and may not even be able to think. Another example is Jet planes are flown by the computers but not humans.
• It is even hampering the daily production of newspapers or printing industry as you can get everything on the Internet, easily down loadable music and movies have hampered the growth of music industry.


Skill shortage refers to the lack of the skill of workers. According to Tesda (2007) skill shortage are commonly caused by the faulty in educational system, myopic policy of labor export and the pervasive technical change. Below are some of the strategies in order to deal the problem in skill shortage according to Tesda (2007):

“Expatriation. Results revealed that hiring expatriates in filling vacancies in MNCs is seldom done. Of the surveyed MNCs only 17 percent of managers and less than 1 percent of professional and technical staff are expatriates. The reasons being are the large base of employment hopefuls and the labor market restrictions on the employment of foreigners in the country. Recruitment. Notwithstanding the large pool of applicants, the MNCs still experienced the lack of qualified applicants. Thus, they are employing various modes of recruitment to ensure the competitiveness of the selection process. Job Contracting. More than four-fifths of the Philippine sample were found to outsourced one or several tasks. The most commonly outsourced tasks are those that would require general skills such as maintenance, security and clerical. The main motivation by MNCs for job contracting is to keep its permanent staff lean but mean and for greater flexibility. Multinationals tend to maintain permanent platilla position for firm-specific skills. Training. Sample MNCs indicated that high proportion of employees in all ranks has been exposed to various forms of training whether internal or external to the company as a means of correcting skill deficiencies. Manufacturing firms located in the Philippines tend to spend higher training expenditures compared to Malaysia but lower when compared to those situated in Indonesia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. Training expenditures for business and services firms were found to be lesser in Indonesia and Malaysia but greater in Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand as compared to the Philippines.”

For me the best strategy to prevent skill shortage is to educate the people and create a curriculum that is fit to the person’s skill. And conduct a training quarterly or annually in order for the person to know the latest in their field and to keep in mind the past learnings they had.

Reference:

Skills Shortages and Training Needs of MNCs in the Philippines (Issue No. 20). TESDA Retrieved January 3, 2009, from http://www.tesda.gov.ph/page.asp?rootID=4&sID=154&pID=34

Effects of Technology. Essay Depot Retrieved January 3, 2009, from http://www.essaydepot.com/essayme/2195/index.php.

How Technology Has Effected Our Society. Tech Advisory Board Retrieved January 5, 2009, from http://www.techab.net/how-technology-has-effected-our-society/




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Richard Mark Daliba

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Thu Jan 22, 2009 1:49 pm

The fast changing in the world of technology make it uncomfortable for every employee to work on businesses. Nowadays, works are being doe by technology and thus to work make employees difficult to adjust on the work. There should be enough training on employees assigned to particular jobs in order for him or her to work as prescribed by the management. The arrival of different advance technology should be deal with to avoid skills shortage in advance technology. There should be enough training and seminars imposed to avoid this kind of problem. Enabling this kind of strategy would really make it easier for employees to adopt on advanced technology.
Some businesses engaging in the use of advance technology imposes proper training first to before they use this kind of strategy on the business. When they could minimize workloads to employees, then they would start on focusing on this kind of strategy to maximize the output on workloads. They should now have a bigger output or vision that would really boast the company’s profit. Having this kind of new technology advancement on the business works make it easier for every company to make works that would totally boast the company’s profit and thus make them more competitive in the market.

Change in Student and Teacher Roles
When students are using technology as a tool or a support for communicating with others, they are in an active role rather than the passive role of recipient of information transmitted by a teacher, textbook, or broadcast. The student is actively making choices about how to generate, obtain, manipulate, or display information. Technology use allows many more students to be actively thinking about information, making choices, and executing skills than is typical in teacher-led lessons.

Increased Motivation and Self Esteem
The most common--and in fact, nearly universal--teacher-reported effect on students was an increase in motivation. Teachers and students are sometimes surprised at the level of technology-based accomplishment displayed by students who have shown much less initiative or facility with more conventional academic tasks:

Technical Skills
Students, even at the elementary school level, are able to acquire an impressive level of skill with a broad range of computer software (see examples). Although the specific software tools in use will likely change before these students enter the world of work, the students acquire a basic understanding of how various classes of computer tools behave and a confidence about being able to learn to use new tools that will support their learning of new software applications.

Accomplishment of More Complex Tasks
Teachers for the observed classes and activities at the case study sites were nearly unanimous also in reporting that students were able to handle more complex assignments and do more with higher-order skills (see examples) because of the supports and capabilities provided by technology.

More Collaboration with Peers
Another effect of technology cited by a great majority of teachers is an increased inclination on the part of students to work cooperatively and to provide peer tutoring. While many of the classrooms we observed assigned technology-based projects to small groups of students, as discussed above, there was also considerable tutoring going on around the use of technology itself. Collaboration is fostered for obvious reasons when students are assigned to work in pairs or small groups for work at a limited number of computers. But even when each student has a computer, teachers note an increased frequency of students helping each other. Technology-based tasks involve many subtasks (e.g., creating a button for a HyperCard stacks or making columns with word processing software), leading to situations where students need help and find their neighbor a convenient source of assistance. Students who have mastered specific computer skills generally derive pride and enjoyment from helping others.

Increased Use of Outside Resources
Teachers from 10 out of 17 classrooms observed at length cited increased use of outside resources as a benefit of using technology. This effect was most obvious in classrooms that had incorporated telecommunications activities (see examples), but other classes used technologies such as satellite broadcasts, tele-facsimiles, and the telephone to help bring in outside resources.

Improved Design Skills/Attention to Audience
Experiences in developing the kinds of rich, multimedia products that can be produced with technology, particularly when the design is done collaboratively so that students experience their peers' reactions to their presentations, appear to support a greater awareness of audience needs and perspectives.
a) Work tasks: producing a regrouping of tasks, direct production activities having been reduced and indirect activities – maintenance and quality – increased. Physical effort has been substituted by technological development, but at the same time, the everyday activity of the worker has become more complex, with higher levels of autonomy, decision and responsibility.
b) Professional categories: with the substitution of the concept of professional category by those of function and multi-skilled workers. Functional categories emerge and acquire relevance, such as those of auditors, programmers of receipt of materials, work team and quality control coordinators. Also, there is a clear tendency for the unification of Direct Labor (DL) and Indirect Labor (IL) teams.
c) Qualification requirements, functional mobility and training: these result from the demand for multi-skilled workers, so that, for example, specialists constitute a category directly under threat, given their lack of a wider training, which reduces their possibilities of re-conversion; on the other hand, this situation favors medium-level technical groups, whose level of general training is much higher, and who have much more positive multi-skill indices. Increased mobility in all modes, and modification of training policies, which focus on three types: maintenance operators – training in the handling of new technology; middle managers or foremen – work team leaders and human relations; and administrative staff, engineers, senior managers and directors.
d) Working conditions: the high average age of workforces has given rise to considerable problems of adaptation to the demands of new technological and organizational systems. Of particular relevance has been the problem of retraining workers whose experience, though great in terms of time, is limited to carrying out simple, monotonous and routine tasks on production lines. On the other hand, technological innovation has permitted the atomization of high-risk production processes, leading to a reduction in traditional health problems related to hearing, the skin and the back, and to fewer accidents. Nevertheless, other problems have emerged, related to the new working conditions, and especially to increased responsibility, greater job uncertainty and insecurity and more flexible and irregular working days: stress, depression, alcoholism and cardiovascular problems.
e) Changes in labor relations: from closed schemes in relation to specialization and assignment of tasks, highly structured and formally defined professional categories, within a legal framework that determines and conditions labor organization (working hours and shifts, wage conditions, etc.), to a flexible, open system as regards both planning of work activity and the relationship between employer and employee – with more "personalized and individual" working and contractual conditions.
In line with these changes, in the Renault organization it was decided in 1988 to adopt a "strategy for change", using as a pioneer factory the assembly and manufacture plant at Valladolid so as, on the basis of the results obtained, to generalize the design of the new manufacturing systems to the Group’s other factories. Thus, a series of actions were implemented for the application of procedures, methods and techniques in the production line (quality groups, creation and development of Basic Work Units (BWUs), progress acceleration plan, "just in time" techniques as procedures for the provision of materials, and flexible-tight manufacturing systems), together with the drawing up of a Social Plan – as set down in the 1989-93 Agreement document of the Inter-Centre Committee signed by the company and the Committee – outlining the following strategic Human Resources policies:
1- Reduction of workforce, with the laying off of around 6,000 workers – 30% of the total – through early retirement and voluntary redundancy schemes.
2- Development of criteria to favor labor flexibility through the development of schedules and timetables for production and personnel mobility and rotation with the aim of adapting production to market demand.
3- Training plan: involving a schedule designed to improve quality, establishing the mean of 112 hours per year for each employee within the Training/Quality Project.
4- Management schemes: determining the human resources potential with the aim of drawing up the professional development programs of the company’s managers from the year 2000.
5- Implementation of non-retribution motivational actions favoring the creation and development of groups participating as basic units in the organization of human resources.
In order for our country to avoid the skills shortage in advance technology sectors, they should offer different kinds of trainings and seminars on technology advancement in order for employees to gain skills on using different kinds of advance technology. There should be proper job assignment on employees to avoid different kinds of problems while different kinds of transactions are to be done on businesses. Another way to minimize the skills shortage is to hire proper and well trained professionals for jobs that are possibly be on adopting technological advancement. With this kind of strategy, a change and maximization of the work done and the output of the work would surely be created.

http://www.psychologyinspain.com/content/full/2001/8.htm
http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdTech/effectsstudents.html
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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Thu Jan 22, 2009 3:35 pm

". . . the moment man first picked up a stone or a branch to use as a tool, he altered irrevocably the balance between him and his environment. From this point on, the way in which the world around him changed was different. It was no longer regular or predictable. New objects appeared that were not recognizable as a mutation of something that had existed before, and as each one emerged it altered the environment not for a season but for ever. While the number of these tools remained small, their effect took a long time to spread and to cause change. But as they increased, so did their effects: the more the tools, the faster the rate of change." --James Burke, Connections

"Technology is the application of organized knowledge to practical tasks by ordered systems of people and machines."--Arnold Pacey


Innovations in technology have caused numerous effects in our society. As technology innovations takes place is a fastest way no one can imagine, it multiply its effects in our society: both negative and positive effects. But what more advantageous with technology innovations is that its contribution in economic growth (mass production). As the population continues to grow, the need to mass-produce products emerged. Technology has greatly helped in this area.

Technology has led to increased production with less labor. Through technology, people have achieved a great increase in the production of goods and services. In the past, for example, farmers and animals were the main source of produce in farms. Farmers had to work from dawn to dusk, yet one farmer could produce food enough only for a family or two. With the introduction of farm machinery and advanced agricultural technologies, shortage of mass destruction is eliminated in the recent time. Not focusing on the problem in its distribution to the public. Higher living standard is a result of the increased production of goods and services. We are now better fed, better clothed and housed, and we enjoy a healthier, more comfortable life than people in the past. Technology has changed the way we live our lives. With the innovations in internet technology, it speeds up the exchange of information without considering the time and distance of communicating parties. If not communicating virtually, people can easily and quickly see each other if they want to because there are faster means of transportation whether by land, air or sea.

With so many benefits technology can provide, it corresponds also the negative effects it can cause both in our lives and the society where living in. While technology brings us conveniences and luxuries, it can also cause problems. It is a matter of how technology is used. This implies that if we are to take advantage of technology, then we have to think about how to utilize it well. Most problems related to technology arose mainly because those who created the technology did not consider their possible harmful effect. Destruction caused by technology haven’t yet considered on its introduction. It means that man have to experience its negative effects before it will realized and taken for considerations.

Environmental pollution is one of the most harmful effects of technology. Most if not all countries now face problems of air, water, soil and noise pollution. These pollutions are produced by advanced machineries in any field. Global warming is the major effects the technology has ever caused. Without proper management of toxic waste commonly known as e- waste of electronic waste have resulted to the destruction of ozone layer. The increasing utilization of advanced technology also increases the amount of harmful gases in the atmosphere. Those gases continue to destroy our ozone layer. Climate change has been experienced by all places around the world. The rapid advance of technology may also cause the depletion of our natural resources. Because of the need to produce many products in large quantities, our natural resources are used up very fast. This will lead to shortage in the future needs. To run those machines in almost all industries reduces the supply of oil and fuels for producing electricity. Not only industries, even us individual are utilizing electricity in almost all our works.

Machineries brought about by the advancement in technology seem to replace human jobs in almost all fields. In industries and large companies many workers have been displaced or removed from their work because of the availability of those machines that found to perform faster with reduced errors. People are no longer needed to do mechanical things caused it can be performed by the machine in a faster and efficient way. For business people, the use of those machineries gives more profit for the companies and a wide opportunity to excel in the market. However, this causes major unemployment for displaced workers. Most of the mass labor work force has been badly affected by these technologies.

If you have been replaced by the machine to do your work, it tends to give you a feeling of discontentment and inaccomplishment. If not fired you will maybe displaced in a simpleir task. Most factory workers now do only certain task in doing one job rather that doing the entire job process. This often results to less job satisfaction for the workers. For you to have a job, you aim to exceed the machines ability.

The Philippines have an increasing number of unemployment because of the higher qualifications needed for the employment for job associated with the advanced technologies. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a regional grouping of 21 economies situated within the Pacific Rim. APEC is just one for those institutions address the skill shortage of Filipino workers. APEC ascribed to the idea that human resource development is fundamental to economic development. Without adequate human resources, the opportunities offered by trade and investment liberalization would diminish considerably. APEC focuses on Multinational Corporations in selected economies, namely manufacturing, banking and finance, insurance and business services.


In the Philippines firms were found out to experience recruitment difficulties for managers and professionals or what commonly known as technical worker than recruiting clerical, sales, services and production personnel. The study results showed that looking for non-technical workers is simpler as they can be easily trained even if they are skills deficient upon entry. Recruitment for technical positions is another case as there are minimum levels of competencies required of the workers at the time of job entry. Hence firms tend to exercise greater selectivity.

The ff. are the several ways by which MNCs deals with skill shortages in the Philippines. The most common among other institution hoping to lessened the unemployment because of skill shortage and deficiency.

Expatriation.

Results revealed that hiring expatriates in filling vacancies in MNCs is seldom done. Of the surveyed MNCs only 17 percent of managers and less than 1 percent of professional and technical staff are expatriates. The reasons being are the large base of employment hopefuls and the labor market restrictions on the employment of foreigners in the country.

Recruitment

Notwithstanding the large pool of applicants, the MNCs still experienced the lack of qualified applicants. Thus, they are employing various modes of recruitment to ensure the competitiveness of the selection process.

Job Contracting

More than four-fifths of the Philippine sample were found to outsourced one or several tasks. The most commonly outsourced tasks are those that would require general skills such as maintenance, security and clerical. The main motivation by MNCs for job contracting is to keep its permanent staff lean but mean and for greater flexibility. Multinationals tend to maintain permanent platilla position for firm-specific skills.

Training

Sample MNCs indicated that high proportion of employees in all ranks has been exposed to various forms of training whether internal or external to the company as a means of correcting skill deficiencies. Manufacturing firms located in the Philippines tend to spend higher training expenditures compared to Malaysia but lower when compared to those situated in Indonesia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. Training expenditures for business and services firms were found to be lesser in Indonesia and Malaysia but greater in Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand as compared to the Philippines.
Though it has several APEC like organization in the country to address this problem, technicality of workers has been trained even before they applied. Most workers have graduated with having enough knowledge on technical aspects of their work. Disqualified graduates will also lead to unemployment. Education system should be updated with the latest skill needed in industries. Trained students with those skills will make them competent enough to acquire the job after graduation.

There are also private sector who make use the advancement in internet technologies who outsourced job with other country in the world. Call centers have employed a lot of worker, all kinds of transcriptions – medical, legal, ect is in demand in countries such as US. The Philippine software developers have already recognized for its competent in any programming jobs. These are just a few jobs that help eliminate the unemployment in the country.





References:
http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/280/soctechchange/soctech2.htm
http://www.itworldcanada.com/a/Integrating-IT/1d1d6f81-4a4e-4aae-ab1f-19c9a00312d8.html
www.seameo-innotech.org/resources/school%2520community%2520partnerships/pdf/SCI%2520Technology-2520Its%2520Benefits%2520and%2520negative%2520Effects.pdf+benefits+and+negative+effects+of+technology&hl=tl&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=ph" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">http://72.14.235.132/search?q=cache:3IwdQFJ_9ZgJ:www.seameo-innotech.org/resources/school%2520community%2520partnerships/pdf/SCI%2520Technology-2520Its%2520Benefits%2520and%2520negative%2520Effects.pdf+benefits+and+negative+effects+of+technology&hl=tl&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=ph
http://www.tesda.gov.ph/page.asp?rootID=4&sID=154&pID=34
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Kenneth Roldan M. Tello

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Sat Jan 24, 2009 8:33 am

We can visibly see all the effects of technological change if we try to look around our environment that we are living. Everything we see from the smallest grain of cement to the tallest towers and commercial buildings, high powered weapons, fast running cars and airplanes, supercomputers and super portable mobile phones and gadgets are all the product of years of continuous hard work, research and experiments and a lot of luck of those people with such genius minds from the past and spent their lifetime developing such technologies. What we enjoy in the present were all legacy of such marvelous people and geniuses of the past. Clearly, the development of technologies and its continuous change had changed the way people are living today in all aspects of life I believe; physically, emotionally, morally and spiritually. Technological change was such a powerful force that drives changes to civilization. From the simple living people knew, it turns into a very complex yet productive living no one would ever imagined will exist.

Technological change had brought lots of effects to the society in general. These effects are evident and very obvious if we try to navigate the world history. Whether good or bad, positive or negative, these effects have a very huge impact and influence on what our society looked today.

Below are some of the technological effects in our society.

The continuous but rapid changes in technology had resulted human needs and lifestyle to constantly but also rapidly changing. Human will never be contented as many of us believed. This belief was well justified by the rapid changes in technology because of human consumption. But this human dynamics when it comes to their needs played a very important role of what technology looks like today. Innovations were such unbelievable. In fact, there are a lot of human needs that leads to technological change. Man needed a device that can be used in communication that is faster that the old fashioned mailing system. Years later, with the discovery of the concept of electricity developed what we knew today as the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell. Later human needs a portable communication device than the bulky telephone and because of this needs gave birth to a much more portable and inexpensive concept of modern telephony, the cellular telephone or cell phone. In the field of transportation, human needs to travel and deliver goods to far places as fast as they could leads to the invention of steam engine by James Watt that replaced the old cart pulled by animals. The needs of human again has changed for a faster yet convenient means of transportation hence, together with the development of fossil fuels, automobile using fuels were invented. More and more ambitious means of transportation were developed like trains, airplanes that conquered the sky and allowed human travel from country to country fast and convenient. These among other technological innovations in different fields marked a statement that it is the human needs that drives technological change. However, there are some factors that human didn't anticipated. Because of the impact that technology provided to human, although it is still continuous but the human needs changed very fast than the usual. It is the demand that created technology.
It is the technology that created the demand. Sounds contradicting from the previous isn't it? But before you raise your eyebrows and starts an argument, let me state first some scenarios and examples that somehow proves that statement. Yes, demand creates technology and no questions about that, but because of the numerous advantages it provides to human, the trend suddenly reversed but not totally erased. We cannot deny the fact that technology was created to serve a purpose and that is to serve human needs. But technology has crossed beyond borders and conquered every human being. Technological change was such a dominating force that conquered everything in this world and creating a demand is one of them. The best example of technology that created the demand is the internet.
The internet's primary goal of creation was to provide a shared connection and information around the US ARPA. Actually it is really not a primary need of human,a non commodity in short. But as more had used the technology such as the academic sector and some companies, it suddenly become a new and very significant technology where a lot of things could be done. As the majority from the academe, the government and the industry are becoming more dependent on the internet and the world wide web for the majority of their transactions and other activities for socialization and the like, the internet has become the barometer of every technology created. At first, only computers have the capability to access the web but now, mobile phones and other electronic gadgets were modeled to be compatible with the internet. Technologies will surely be competitive in the market if it provides users access over the web. Because of the overwhelming acceptance and use of the internet, technologies that provides access over the web were such of great demand. Clearly, the birth of the internet is the classic example of “it is the technology that creates the demand”.
Technological change were identified by prominent book authors and experts environmentalists from different parts of the world to be the number 1 contributor to the climate change and global warming. The increasing amount of greenhouse gases is the main reason why the world is experiencing sudden climate change like much stronger typhoons and frequent flash floods due to the increase in the sea level as the results of melting of ice in some cold continents like Antarctica. Technology that human are using is the number one contributor of greenhouse gases specially CO2. Among of these technologies are the fossil fuels, the aerosol sprays, smokes from factories and many more. With human becoming too much dependent on technology which sometimes leads to excessive use of it, this problem of climate change and global warming tend to goes hand in hand with technological change. This will limit on how far can we go with technological change. Although there are efforts initiated by World Organizations and leaders to combat this fatal effects of technological change in our society. Still this problem will not be eradicated unless technology stops changing and reach its final destination.
Technological change had created more jobs for people. More and more factories were created to develop numerous kinds of technology which resulted for jobs specially those who are on the lower class of the society. Because of industrialization, more and more people migrated to cities where the urbanization is at its peak for greener pastures. Although there are also those people who lost their jobs because of the huge improvement in most of human lifestyle like for instance the mailing system. Because of the invention of the electronic mails and short messages sent (SMS) or we commonly known today as text in mobile phones, huge number of employees from post office were fired from their jobs due to decreasing no. of mails. The old-fashioned mailing system had almost become obsolete by the latest communication system. But this disadvantage could not outweigh the no. of jobs created by technological change. In the present, as more and more technologies and services are introduced, it caused shortage in terms of manpower. The skills needed became more and more complex and very high standard in which the academe failed to match. What the academe provides to its students are not what the industry needs. There is what we called “industry-academe mismatch”. This has been the problem of the industry right now where the demand of the experts specially in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is very high. This is one of the major problem in which the government in coordination with the business sector should address first. This scenarios has become worse as more and more companies continue to grow and expand. Clearly, technological change paved a way where opportunities could easily be reached by human, build a strong foundation for human survivability and the most important, it gives human hope that technological change could be the key for their success. Although there are some jobs that become obsolete that caused some to suffer,but this is not enough to cancel the benefits it provides.



The Philippines, even though a 3rd world country, slowly and trying to cope up with the fast technological change. Yes we are far beyond on what are the technological advancements rich countries like Japan and U.S.A, but we filipinos have the capability to compete with them in terms of skills and our ability lo learn. Our country also slowly becoming as one of the Information Technology hub in Southeast Asia together with Malaysia and Singapore. A new trend in business that we called outsourcing or Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) has become the most famous in our country. Some companies in the United States outsourced in our country because of the low cost of business here and filipinos has the capability to engaged with such jobs. Because of the very fast growth in the field of ICT, the Philippines right now is facing skills shortage on this field. In a study conducted by XMG, a global ICT research and advisory tank, “the total ICT growth in the Philippines which is projected to grow by 30 to 35% FTE year-on-year through 2010”.” But the country's IT labor pool average growth for the past 5 years is only 10% and is forecast to grow by another 3% in the next 2 to 3 years,”. This is the current shortage status of the country as far as the ICT field is concern. How are we going to solve the problem of skill shortage? Here are some of the strategies the government had implemented and must implement to solve the increasing number of skills shortage in the country.


Improvement of the education system specially in State Universities and Colleges

the government implemented some changes in the curriculum of some universities and colleges through its ladderized curriculum program headed by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). With this program, students could acquire the needed skills needed by the industry.
The government must also increase the subsidy of every State Universities and Colleges (SUC's) for them to provide state of the art facilities to their students. This has been the major problem of state universities and colleges throughout the country.
The government must also limit the increase of matriculation of private schools to have an increase of enrolling students. Increasing the no. of students could solve the skills shortage in the country.

Provide training institutions in technological fields at low to no cost

TESDA offers some technical courses to students at a low cost and also in a short period of time. This training are the best alternative for those who cannot afford to go to universities. But the no. of training institutions in the country is still not enough to produced the needed labor pool in the field of ICT and technology.

Industry-Academe Mismatch

this is the problem that needs to be solve first. There is a mismatch on what the academic sector produced to what the industry needs. According to XMG analyst Benedict Dormitorio, “ensuring curriculum alignment of educational institutions with the current market needs of the industry through close consultation with ICT companies and organizations is very important”. The graduates produced by the academe is useless if it doesn't match on what the industry demands. An example of this is strengthening partnership of industry and academe in offering On the Job Training (OJT) program for the students to acquire skills that industry needs.

Government Should promote Technology Courses

the government must also encourage incoming college students to enroll to what are the in demand courses like IT or Computer Science to increase the number of expected graduates.

Wage Increase

majority of the fresh graduates on this field migrated to neighboring countries like Singapore, Middle East, India, China and Malaysia because of low wage. The government must increase the current wage rate in the country to convince our graduates to stay in the country.



Reference:

http://www.infoworld.com/news/feeds/08/04/04/Critical-skills-in-the-Philippines-face-shortage.html
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Francis Anthony Itucas

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Sun Mar 01, 2009 2:03 am

According to Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, technology from the Greeks which would mean “the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area.” Technology do change as time...[read more]
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Thomas Tangian

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Thu Mar 12, 2009 10:40 pm

Technolgy constantly changes and we cannot deny the fact that we are getting fan from it. Their are lots of changes that occur everyday in our lives and in our society, all of these involves technology. For me based on my own opinion regarding this assignment.These are the following effects brought by technology in our society:

social impact- draw people indoors and alone, and thus away from social and civic engagement. For me these is true by using television and other informative gadgets you may not participate in other gatherings in order to be informed about the events you just have to watch in th eTV and bingo the news is their and all the details. And because of these people think that is destroying the sense of social interactions between people.

cultural impact - "Albert Borgmann's compelling argument that modern technological devices provide comfort, convenience and productivity in ways that are culturally impoverishing, by causing people to disengage experientially from both social relations and the natural world"

psychodevelopmental impact - interaction with computer toys alters children's cognitive development away from the classical trajectory. For me It is replacing the things what we usually adopt like those games like sackrace, hide and seek now a days children are involve in computer games which is based in 2d and 3d environment we don't know hat will be the impact it will bring to the children involve.

For me their are lots of impact brought by technology we live a faster and comfortable life we experience a fast and clear vacuum. Even in our day to day walk we cannot deny that technology helps a lot to make our work easier, faster and comfortable. Philippines is a country with many people who are talented in advance technology but sad to say many wants to work abroad because of the salary. And for this reason their is a skill shortage that is happening in the country. In the article that ive read it states their in order to minimize the skill shortage ," companies must extend their recruitment reach, improve their skill development pathways, enrich retention and provide hot skills training on the existing talents in the organization to avoid high additional cost components associated with these skill areas." For me I guess these are some ways that can be used in order to minimize the skill shortage in our country.

http://www.loka.org/idt/SocialEffects.htm
http://www.infoworld.com/news/feeds/08/04/04/Critical-skills-in-the-Philippines-face-shortage.html
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giesi mae l. gorgonio

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PostSubject: assignment5   Fri Mar 20, 2009 10:37 pm

Since we are in the fast evolving technology, we are facing now the so-called information evolution. The manifestation of the changes brought to us by the technology is the great improvement of human activities and social changes in our society. Computers have emerged as the technological innovation and a common denominator of change in many areas. When we hear about the technology, the first word that will come in our mind are computers right? Computers play a significant role in automating manufacturing and office administration: the main and dominant factors in the current changes in our society.
In the present era, the technology fueled almost every part of our everyday life from the simple way of living before to the most complicated one. We have reached to what is future before. Man discovered what is unimaginable in the past. Today, banking is open 24 hours a day; shopping is one click away; communicating to the other part of the globe is very possible with no hassle at all and many more. From the survey entitled “America’s Children and the Information Superhighway: An update to The Children’s Partnership” conducted in May 1996, found out that there is a rapid leap of online users in U.S. households and it continually growing and each of the largest commercial companies that provide online services has added a "kids only" or family-oriented section.
With all this changes, the question is are we ready? Readiness for the change brought by information technology is very important.
As a developing country, our government officials has foreseen this risk and ascribed the idea that human resource development is fundamental to economic development. It is true because today, the dynamically changing environment has changed the qualification requirements for the job market and competitiveness in every individual company. The complex patterns of change brought by new ways of information technology are new tensions, centralization vs. fragmentation, a holistic perspective vs. specialized knowledge, too much information vs. too little information, leadership vs. fellowship, worker isolation/alienation vs. community connections, sharing vs. withholding access to information, information "filters" vs. disintermediation, and public intervention vs. private decision-making. Our local government believes that without human resources, the opportunities offered by trade and investment liberation would diminish considerably. They believe that skill can constrain the expansion of output in the short-term and will possibly limit of diversifying productive structure in the long term.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conducted a study in 2009 on Multinational Corporations in selected economies. These are the result of the survey:
1. Philippines Still a Choice for MNCs
The survey of 81 MNCs revealed that the country remained a location of choice by multinational corporations. Large pool of educated, English-speaking and highly trainable work force continued to be the driving force in attracting foreign capital to the country. On the other hand, deficiencies in infrastructure, political unrest and peace and order were seen as hindering factors.

2. Cause of Skill Shortage is Complex
Skill shortages could be traced back to the faulty educational system, myopic policy of labor export and pervasive technical change. The study cited that educational flaws stemmed up from poor curriculum, inadequate teacher's training, and low public and private investment in education. The policy emphasis of broadening access to education resulted to sacrificing quality as resource requirements became dispersed. Mismatches between industry requirements and educational preparation of new entrants to the labor force also exist.

The policy of encouraging the export of labor also contributed to the skill shortage. The study opined that the task of dealing with skill shortage is less urgent compared to the malaise of labor surplus. Of course, with fast-changing technologies demand for new skills would render some existing skills obsolete.
Cisco Networking Academy collaborated with educational community help people world-wide in realizing a dream of a better life by teaching valuable networking and IT skills. They conducted a study which shows that our country – Philippines is ranked 4th in Asia-Pacific lacking networking skills in 2006 and is expected to increase within this year. Also, it states that there will be a shortage of 221, 000 people with advanced networking technology skills in wireless security and IP telephony in region within this year also. In this connection, Cisco Networking Academy is offering program’s inception in the country to over 116, 000 students and trained more than 800 instructors in 143 Cisco Academies in the country. These are the following results in the survey:
Total networking skills. Overall, IDC estimates a shortage of people with networking skills across the APEJ region of about 2,100,000 in 2006, increasing to 396,000 by 2009. These figures represent skill gaps as a proportion of total demand of 19% in 2006 and 23% in 2009. The number of skilled people is based on IDC’s proprietary skills model, which calculates the full time equivalents (FTEs). For the skilled people estimation above, IDC utilized the assumption that people on average spend 70% of their time working with networking technology.
Advanced network technology skills. This refers to skills in the area of networking security and new network developments such as IP telephony (IPT) and wireless networking. When considering advanced skills (wireless, VoIP, and security), IDC estimates a skilled people shortage of about 113,000 in 2007 growing to 221,000 in 2009. These figures represent advanced skills gaps as a proportion of advanced skills demand of 22% in 2006 and 26% in 2009. The rapid adoption of these technologies by organizations throughout the region will drive demand for these skills and growth of the gap at a CAGR of 27% from 2005 to 2009.
Datacenter and cross-technology skills. More than 65% of respondents see these as becoming more important in the future – only overtaken by advanced technology skills. This is a clear indication of the growing importance of networking technology as a platform for supporting critical line-of-business systems, applications, and repositories of data that is found in enterprise datacenters around the region. With the blurring of traditional lines, the networking skill is expected in many organizations in today’s context to possess cross-technology skills rather than operate in a completely distinct environment with clear lines of delineation.
In the development economies grouping (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam), IDC estimates the gap between supply and demand for networking professionals will reach 13,000 by the end of 2006 and rise to 25,000 by 2009, representing skill gaps of 13 percent in 2006 and 18 in 2009. As a sub-regional grouping the total skills gap falls in the middle of the range of the three sub-regional groupings, with a lower total skills gaps than in India and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and a higher gap than the mature economies in APEJ.
In the large growth markets grouping (the PRC and India), IDC forecasts that strong economic development and a voracious local and global demand for IT related professionals will lead to a large total skills gap in the future. In the PRC, IDC estimates the skills gap will reach 107,100 (or 23%) by the end of 2006, growing to 192,300 (28%) by 2009. In India, the gap will reach 59,300 (20%) by 2006, climbing to 137,200 (26%) by 2009.
In the mature/maturing economies grouping (Australia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore), IDC forecasts the skilled gaps in this country grouping will be lower than the regional average, reflective of where these countries are in the development cycle. IDC estimates the skilled people gap for networking professionals in this group will reach about 31,000 (11%) in 2006, rising to 41,000 (12%) by 2009.
Changing role of the network. According to IDC’s research, 96% of respondents across the region believe their networking infrastructure will become more important to their organizations in the future.
Vendor certification. IDC research found that increasing numbers of organizations view vendor-based certification as an important attribute when assessing potential staff to fill networking-related positions. Of those surveyed, 33% said such certifications are “very important” with a further 55%, indicating they were “relatively important.”

The government officials recognizes the vital role of information and communications technology (ICT) in nation-building and providing solutions to the above mentioned problems, recognizes the following:
1. The need to create an information-friendly environment which supports and ensures the availability, diversity and affordability of ICT products and services;
2. the primary responsibility of the private sector in contributing investments and services in ICT;
3. the need to develop, with appropriate training programs and institutional policy changes, human resources for the information age, a labor force skilled in the use of ICT and a population capable of operating and utilizing electronic appliances and computers; its obligation to facilitate the transfer and promotion of technology;
4. to ensure network security, connectivity and neutrality of technology for the national benefit;
5. and the need to marshal, organize and deploy national information infrastructures, comprising in both communications network and strategic information services, including their interconnection to the global information networks, with the necessary and appropriate legal, financial, diplomatic and technical framework, systems and facilities.

Sources:
[1]http://www.jobsdb.com.ph/Philippines/inside-pages/IndustryTrends/IT_1107.html
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Anthony E. Catamora

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PostSubject: Assignment 5   Sun Mar 22, 2009 1:17 pm

As the Information Technology has been fully utilized and developed over the years, many lives have changed respectively in the terms of the quality of life. Many people all over the world regarded technology as vincible power of knowledge that constitutes to the greatness of life that has been being offered to every individuals in the world. Since then, technological advancements has very responsive to the demands of people in every country such that they live in the luxurious way of life as far as technology can offer. The technological advancements has continuously changing and changing as it responds to the dynamic trends in Industries and in the lifestyle of the society. Thus, the growing demands and trends in the market have very indulgent in living up the developments in Information Technology in the field of health, transportation, telecommunication, and in entertainment.

Change seems to be the window of Information Technology because change is what technology is intended for. As long as human exists, technology still changing and continues to encircle life as the way it is demanded. Humanity finds no satisfaction and thus technology would still follow to the waves of life. Even with ourselves, we still continue seeking for something new even though technology is there yet we still use technology to develop new technology. Technology is like a snake that takes time to change skin and takes new form and features. In that way technology makes sense in the dynamic world of human. That is why also technology has become also an influential statue in the world market and in society and country. Here in the Philippines, many filipino are hooked with new technologies that sprang over the market like new models of celphones, i-pods, laptops, and other “techy” gadgets. These new technologies are most loved by many younger people

Furthermore, technological change in the society has been vincible over the effects that it brings to the community in political, economic and social aspects it's either positive or negative. Looking through the positive effects of the technological change in our society in both economic and social aspect.

Economically :

1.Many different business models and ideas have been occurred and utilized well.
2.New ways of business operations become easy and reduce the cost of production.
3.Many business opportunities in both offline and online have mushroomed.
4.New jobs opportunities are being welcomed and delved by many Job applicants of different of industries.
5.Different small and medium enterprise or SME are taking the most of the changes which they offer a lesser price of their products and services.
6.Many local and foreign investors are more willing invest their money to put up business as our ICT government has provided skilled workers.
7.The Government was able to transport many Filipino skilled workers abroad yet in IT skills requirements in the international market failed to achieve..
8.Exportation and importation of local products are easily managed and accessed.
9.The Philippine government has been able to strengthen its services to the people.

Socially :

1.The new trends in communication are valuably enjoyed by many people especially those who has long distant affair with love ones.
2.Through Internet access, many people can easily get connected with the other network in the world by the use of social networking sites such as facebook, friendster, tag, yuwie and many more.
3.Mass media and Business Entertainment groups have progressed its access to the mass people in an very instant.
4.People can easily find foreign friends through chatting and other forms of multimedia applications.
5.Access to entertainment industry can now be easy to do just by introducing or showcasing the talent in an video sharing sites such youtube which is now most popular.
6.Many young individuals have been influenced by the new technological trends.
7.New ways and forms of education have been introduced and utilized to promote higher ends of education to the youth.

According to scienceray.com (2007) that another prominent technological innovation that well represents our society today is the Internet. The Internet is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data between themselves. It is an extremely large network that consists of countless smaller networks. The World Wide Web is accessible only through this Internet infrastructure which allows us our access to websites, email, file sharing, downloads, and media. That is why Internet technologies have the major impact to the social of the filipino society which also helped them find ways to lift up their own lives from down to upward effect. Technological advancements are getting to the lives of many people where they can learn, teach and improve their own skills independently as they go beyond to their comfort zone. Many computer savvy now are young and one thing that they are also great is that they can able to compete with other IT professionals in terms of field of specialiaztion.

According to zdnetasia.com (2008) that Despite the increase, the XMG study revealed an insufficient skilled labor pool to sustain the country's total IT growth, which is projected to accelerate by 30 percent to 35 percent year-on-year through 2010.The study identified the skills shortage in Python, VBScript, Perl, XML and VB.net programmers in the Philippines, due to low incident count coming from the general IT population. This is only to imply that the IT skills shortage here in the Philippines has been rooted before the technological advancements here in the country arouse immensely. Ever since, the Government has forget to project the possible shortage of skills in the ICT industries. Many of us here in the Philippines has been ever behind what's the new trends in new technological advancements. The Philippine government was not able to get ready for the changing of technological trends thus we were not able to cope up immediately of what has been going in the international market.

There were some tools or strategies that Philippines used inorder to address the IT skills shortage and this has been observed by many of us who were left in the changing technological advancements.

1.TRAININGS
Many young and IT professionals are being categorized to the lack of experience and trainings which the government was not able to address. Through different outsourcing and extending some help to different private sectors, many IT skilled workers should also experience an global competitive trainings that will able them to reach the required training and skills.

2.ENOUGH FUNDINGS
Through enough fundings, the government must be able to fully support the trainings needed by the IT skilled workers. IT workers would be able to maximize their ability in the field where they are specialized and can able to compete in the international trends.

3.SCHOLARSHIPS
Scholarships are now being used by the Government to address the IT skills shortage through reaching the different IT industries to confront the growing demands in the International market. Many ICT industries are doing their initiatives to stand with the growing and changing technological advancements.



References:
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=601277
http://www.jstor.org/pss/3121100
http://www.scienceray.com/Technology/Applied-Science/The-Effects-and-Influences-of-Technology-on-Society-and-Human-Kind.114891
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NTN/is_47/ai_108722607
http://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/25885.html
http://home.xnet.com/~ansible/graves.hist.html
http://www.zdnetasia.com/news/business/0,39044229,62039776,00.htm
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harleylovitos

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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   Mon Mar 23, 2009 3:17 am

Technology can really change the society, sometimes it adjusts the society in advantageous way and sometimes it changes the society in a negative manner. Technology can really help our society, with the technology it minimizes our task, it helps our work easier and it is truly reliable. Most of the technological change is beneficial to the society, but occasionally it has slight negative effect. The International Labour Organization, South-East Asia and the Pacific Multidisciplinary Advisory Team (SEAPAT) enumerate number of effects of the technology change in the society.


First, employment opportunities for women can increase where technology makes possible out-sourcing and sub-contracting.
This has happened in industries ranging from printing and publishing to clothing and footwear to microelectronic chips, both within and across countries. Telework, electronic homework, offshore data processing, and office administrative services are other new employment opportunities. On the other hand, automation and advances in robotics make the threat of unemployment a very real one for women, particularly in assembly type manufacturing.

Second, skill and job structures change with the introduction of modern technologies in industrial enterprises.
There is a trend towards skill polarisation, with an elite of technically-skilled, polyvalent, high-status, specialist workers coupled with a larger mass of technically semi-skilled, flexible or casual workers requiring minor training. Women are much more likely than men to be found in the latter group. Since little training or on-the-job learning or experience are required, employers are able to resort to using temporary workers, to job rotation or to expanding the number of tasks associated with a job. Correspondingly there is growing job insecurity, as well as employment and income insecurity.
Third, technological innovations imply changing skill requirements, and it is here that women are most likely to be displaced in favour of men.

Women tend to be disproportionately vulnerable to the quantitative and qualitative impact of technological change because of their concentration in a relatively small number of lower-skilled, labour-intensive jobs. Another important consequence of technological change is "deskilling" of women in the labour force in that their skills will become increasingly irrelevant or ill-adapted to the needs of new production technologies. Thailand set up an official tripartite committee to look into the problems of technological unemployment after some 30,000 factory workers, mainly women, were retrenched in 1994. In agriculture too mechanisation and new technologies tend to displace more women than men labourers. In rural areas in developing countries, the introduction of high-yielding grain and crop varieties has generated employment for women agricultural workers. But the subsequent introduction of fertilisers and pesticides, and of mechanisation, has tended to displace or reduce women’s participation in actual production, especially in post-harvest processing. In Indonesia, it has been estimated that the introduction of new technology for the labour-intensive agricultural tasks normally done by women will reduce labour hours per hectare from 1,460 to 625 per year over the next few years. In addition, new techniques in agriculture, especially when they involve commercialisation, often shift economic control, employment and profit from women to men.

Rapid advances in technology also influence the impact of globalisation on women workers.
On one hand, technology has made it possible to relocate data entry, keyboarding and clerical jobs to countries whose comparative advantage lies in a low-wage, well-educated workforce. The setting up of data processing centres and "back offices" in countries such as the Caribbean nations, India, Singapore, the Philippines and China represents a new avenue of employment for women. But these jobs, held almost exclusively by women, offer minimal opportunities for advancement, and little development of skills through formal or informal learning processes.


On the other hand, technological developments can also whittle away the comparative advantages of women’s cheap physical labour. As production for export moves up the technological and skills ladder, women account for falling proportions of the workforce. With comparative advantage increasingly determined by knowledge as the key factor of production, women may lose out more and more. Paragraph 53(g) of the Copenhagen Platform (of the World Summit for Social Development) encourages "co-operation between employers and workers to prepare for the introduction of new technologies and to plan for their employment effects as far in advance as possible, while ensuring adequate protection and adjustment."
Strategies to help women cope with the impact of new technologies can include:
• coherent and effective technology policies in relation to both economic and social objectives
• appropriate skills training and retraining
• strengthening labour relations for joint establishment of rules and procedures for introducing technology changes and solving related problems
• improving labour market information systems
• social protection from those suffering technological unemployment

The Philippine is making strategies to address the skills shortage in advanced technology sectors. The Technical Education and skills Development Authority (TESDA) is giving scholarships to the people who are interested in computer jobs. These are some of the courses they offered Hardware Servicing (NCII) and PC Operation. Hardware Servicing, I took the course last summer from April to June of 2008 and also the help of Congressman Ungab of 3rd District. We had our examination for the certification from TESDA and fortunately I passed the examination. Some of my classmates were given a chance to go to Korea and others are now working. The scholarship really helps us. I can say that Philippine government I working and has plans.

The Philippines participated the Software Development Expo and conference (SODEC) at Tokyo Big Sight in Odaiba. SODEC is the leading software development exhibition in Japan. It’s a good thing that the Philippines are joining such big event in the Information Technology industry. Having this exhibition, the Philippine IT industry can gain ideas in terms of development of software. IT sector in the Philippines are one of the biggest contributor of our economy. Technology can really help in our economy, since we the Filipinos are very competitive in terms of information technology services and also Filipinos can easily adopt culture of the other country and has a good communication skills. Filipinos can really speak English. With these characteristics of the Filipino, the Philippine IT industry has grown dramatically over the past 30 years. From $10 million export revenue in 1989, now Philippine IT industry export over approximately $ 1 billion from the information technology services provided by the Philippines.

With 643 IT schools, 400 technical schools and 86 colleges and universities turning out an estimated 350,000 graduates every year, the Philippines boasts a 94 percent literacy rate--and ranks second among 15 Asian countries in terms of training.

Filipino knowledge workers have been working behind the scenes of the IT industry for more than 25 years, providing the technological backbone for some of the biggest international firms. With five operational cyberparks and 1,739 registered IT companies all over the country, the Philippines is not only a top contender for the distinction of being the e-services hub of Asia, it is also recognized as a major outsourcing services provider for American, European, and Japanese firms.

US companies--including Oracle, Lotus, IBM and Microsoft--currently dominate the Philippine IT software and services outsourcing industry, holding more than 50 percent of the total market share. The challenges of the global economy have led an increasing number of companies to tap overseas professionals to do part (and sometimes all) of their backroom business processing and computer operations. Offshore outsourcing offers the single best solution to the rising cost of operations for many companies. The Philippines is an ideal offshore outsourcing services provider, not only because of the low cost of labor, but primarily for the superior quality of its human resources.

One of the first companies to pioneer the Japanese IT offshore outsourcing market was Advanced Technology and Systems Inc., (ADTX), a Philippines-based subsidiary of IBM-Japan and the Alcantara Group of Companies. A research and development company dealing in application software development, retail solutions, storage solutions, mobile device services, firmware and device driver development and Product Quality Assurance Service, ADTX's pride is its Training Center, which it established in cooperation with NIIT Philippines this year.

ADTX won the "Best Product" Award for its MultiMonitor Color Panel in April of this year in the e-Services Philippines (the country's premier ICT trade fair in Manila). The company enlists the most promising IT graduates in the Philippines to train as scholars in a five-month intensive program based on JITSE (Japanese IT Standard Examination) standards. The program not only equips graduates with new technologies, but also sharpens "soft skills" in business, leadership, communications and Japanese language proficiencies.

Equally strong in its emphasis on training and research is Astra (Philippines) Inc. The company is unique among other Philippine IT firms in its strong ties with the University of the Philippines. Its close collaboration with academia gives it direct access to some of the most brilliant minds in the country and keeps it in the forefront of research and development.
Astra is currently working to develop its own software, which it hopes to release in the international market in the near future. Some of its other services include corporate application systems development, database system development, web system development, content design and production and engineer placement.

With this participation of the Philippines in an International expo, we can hope that in the future our Philippine IT industry will be one of the contributors in terms of information technology services. The scholarship and training Program of Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) are helpful to the Filipinos, since we are facing now the worst problem ever which is the Global Financial Crisis. Through this program Filipinos gain confident and hope that may be someday I can have decent job.


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PostSubject: Re: Assignment 5 (Due: before December 26, 2008, 13:00hrs)   

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